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From the collection of the 

^ m 

o Prepnger 

V iJibrary 
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San Francisco, California 








For Enricnment oi 
the C^urriculum 





NOBLE AND NOBLE, Putlisliers, Inc., New York 





















Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2006 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


THIS BOOK is a real contribution to modern education, 
both in its theory, and in its practice. . . 

The authors' conception of audio-visual enrichment is not 
a narrow-minded attitude, but "entails a grasp of the inter- 
relationship of various areas in the curriculum and the care- 
ful selection of these aids vs^hich are so potent in enriching 

This broad meaning of audio-visual enrichment does not 
restrict itself to elementary and secondary schools, but it is 
also good for pre-school education as well as for adult edu- 
cation beyond secondary institutions, regardless of the cur- 
riculum. As the authors say, "Audio-visual enrichment means 
the realization that one area cannot be taught alone, that this 
integration and enrichment must cause the learning experi- 
ence to become vital, human, sensory, through related areas." 

All these areas will appeal to children, youths, and adults 
on the basis which Dr. Thomas M. Balliet (former Dean of 
the N.Y.U. School of Pedagogy) called sensory-motor train- 
ing, illustrating the well-known principle that all impressions 
( stimuli ) strive for expressions ( doings ) , and lead to reflec- 
tive and creative thinking. 

According to the authors, the term "audio-visual aids" in- 
cludes not only the motion picture and the lantern slide, but 
a rich store of all materials for educational stimuli from A 
to Z, such as anaglyphs, aquaria, blackboard-chalk, bulletin 


boards, cartoons, charts, clubs, comics, costumes, creative 
achievements, dancing, dioramas, demonstrations, discus- 
sions, dolls, dramatics, field trips, filmstrips or filmslides, flat 
pictures, furniture, graphs, illustrated talks, kodachrome 
slides, live animals and plants, maps, miniature stage-sets, 
modeled figures, murals, nature specimens, objects, photo- 
graphs, pictures (plain and colored), radio, relics, sandbox 
scenes, school "movies," stamps, stereographs, story-telling, 
tableaux, television, terraria, vectographs, and visits to the 

Our authors claim that children from their first birth to 
their "second birth" ( at the age of 14 years ) , youths from 14 
to 21 years, and adults from 21 years up should be trained 
and educated as a whole by means of all available audio- 
visual and other sensory-motor aids, designated for the si- 
multaneous development of hand, heart and head; and all 
leading to a wise world in the near or distant future, since "a 
nation without vision must perish," to use the Biblical ex- 

In other words, the authors are trying by their multiferous 
audio-visual aids to avoid that education which was narrow 
and one-sided, exercising and developing certain abilities 
and human attributes at the expense of the rest. The avowed 
aim of the writers of this book is to point the way to the best 
possible means of education for World Citizenship. 

The practical side of this book is still more interesting, 
and its merits include almost all the good hints offered by 
great educators to help the students learn their lessons more 


economically and efficiently, beginning with Comenius' Orbis 
Pictus up to the most recent book on visual aids published 

This book is full of practical examples of the uses of specific 
aids, and advice on where to obtain help in acquiring audio- 
visual materials, plus a careful and useful glossary. The 
aiuthors offer, also, six practical points to bear in mind in 
selecting and using audio- visual aids; fourteen values of 
audio- visual aids when eflFectively used in teaching; and five 
dangers to avoid in using audio- visual aids. 

This book should be in the hands not only of good teachers 
in all grades from kindergarten to university, but also should 
be consulted by all others who are interested in helping to 
develop a modern, ideal and useful American culture and 

Paul R. Radosavljevich, 

Professor Emeritus of Experimental Education. 

New York University School of Education 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The authors wish to acknowledge 
their indebtedness to the following: The Professors of New York 
University who have been especially helpful in this field: Dan W. 
Dodson, John Carr DuflF, Hughes Mearns, Henri C. Olinger; and 
especially to Daniel C. Knowlton and Paul R. Radosavljevich. 

The aid given by the following institutions is also deeply appreci- 
ated: The American Museum of Natural History, the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, the Museum of the City of New York, Hunter Col- 
lege and Hunter College Elementary School of the City of New 
York, the Board of Education of the City of New York, the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia, the Cathedral of St. John the Divine of 
New York City; the United States Navy Developing Center. 

The authors value the assistance of the following: Dr. Grace 
Fisher Ramsey, Curator of School Relations, the American Museum 
of Natural History; Dr. George N. Shuster, President of Hunter 
College; Dr. Charles Russell, Chairman, Dept. of Education, the 
American Museum of Natural History; Prof. Philip R. V. Curoe, 
Chairman of the Dept. of Education, and Dr. Frank T. Wilson, 
Coordinator, Hunter College; Dr. Florence Brumbaugh, Principal 
of Hunter College Elementary School, and the Audio- Visual Par- 
ent Committee of that school; George Colclough of Roelif Jansen 
Central School; Beatrice Frederiksen of Roosevelt School, Hyde 
Park, N. Y.; Anna M. Montgomery, Ellen Kerr, Michael J. Kenny 
and Julius Postal, all of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory; Arnold Spitz of the. Franklin Institute; George Schiebler of 
the Board of Education of the City of New York; Charlotte Chan- 
dler Wells; Teresa Bergamo Zazzali; and Roy E. Stryker of the 
Standard Oil Company. 

PICTURE CREDITS. The authors wish to express their 
appreciation and gratitude to the many institutions and corpora- 
tions which provided pictures for inclusion in this book. They 
wish to thank in particular the following: 

All The Children, publication of the New York City Board of 
Education, for the photographs on pages 9, 15, 18, 22, 45, 48, 71, 
78, 103, 105, 109, 110, 112, 168, 190, 202, 204 and 212. 
American Optical Company for the photograph appearing on 
page 31. 

The American Museum of Natural History for the photographs 
on pages 2, 84, 93, 122, 125, 195, 206, and the frontispiece. 
Ampro Corporation for the photograph on page 37. 
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company for the photograph appear- 
ing on page 29. 

Bell and Howell Company for the photographs on pages 96 and 

British Information Services for the photographs on pages 145 
and 148. 

Columbia Broadcasting System for the photograph on page 53. 
Don Lee Television System for the photographs on pages 140 
and 175. 

The Franklin Institute and Gladys MuUer for the photographs on 
pages 178 and 183. 

Grace Line for the photograph on page 133. 
Hunter College Elementary School for the photographs on pages 
7, 90 and 91. 

The Jam Handy Organization for the photograph appearing on 
page 33. 


The keystone View Company for the photograph on page 35. 
The Metropohtan Museum of Art for the photographs on pages 
69, 80, 83, 116, 136 and 153. 

The Museum of the City of New York for the photographs on 
pages 107 and 119. 

The New York World-Telegram and Al Aumuller for the photo- 
graph on page 74. 

Pan American Airways System for the photograph on page 130. 
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey for the photographs on 
pages 41, 43, 171, and 218. 

Underwood and Underwood for the photograph appearing on 
page 186. 

United Artists for the scenes from "Henry V" on pages 142, 158 
and 164. 

United Nations Department of PubUc Information for the photo- 
graph appearing on page 76. 

The United States Navy for the photograph on page 12. 
Weber Costello Company for the photograph on page 25. 


I. AudioA^isual Enricnment 

VISUAL AIDS and audio- visual aids are familiar terms in 
the realm of education. For some years they have been widely 
used, enthusiastically discussed and evaluated. Long before 
World War II these aids were used by museums in integrated 
programs. They early recognized the educational possibilities 
of flat pictures, slides, stereographs, motion pictures and dio- 
ramas as incentives to the understanding and enjoyment 
of "realia"— their gallery treasures. Schools recognized their 
value, also, but in 1936 only four percent were equipped 
with projectors, and four years later, in 1940, not more than 
ten percent. Although in recent years the appropriation for 
"visual instruction" in schools has, in many cities, been in- 
creased, more funds are needed for proper school use of these 

A great impetus in the use of these teaching tools came 
through «their extensive and intensive use in World War II for 
speedy and effective training of men and women in both mili- 
tary and industrial skills. With the war over, many used pro- 
jectors were sold at reduced prices. Many films prepared by 
our Government became available. More schools are able to 
use this significant method of teaching. With our naval, mili- 
tary, and industrial centers realizing the potency of this 
teaching method, our educators will understand more than 
ever before how necessary these aids are in the education of 
our boys and girls in democracy and world-understanding. 
They will realize, also, how necessary these audio-visual 



aids are in the integration of the various areas of the curriculum 
—Social Studies, Language Arts, the Sciences, Art, Music, 
and Dramatics. 

Long ago educators realized the value of visual enrichment, 
not as a separate subject, or a teaching project, but as an 
eflFective, vital, teaching method, providing for the presenta- 
tion of knowledge through the seeing experience. Audio-visual 
enrichment is not entertainment, but a vital part of the cur- 

Today, with the sound motion picture, the radio, and the 
recordings which now accompany many of the filmstrips, 
the hearing experience combines with the seeing, and audio- 
visual impressions result in still more meaningful teaching and 
functional learning. Other senses are also important in learn- 
ing, especially that of touch, the sense earliest aroused. In 
some learning situations the sense of smell and that of taste 
are eflFective, also. So, we may speak of certain combinations 
of these aids as multi-sensory rather than audio- visual aids. 
These are especially meaningful to young children. 

What are these aids which contribute to happy and eflFective 
learning through the enrichment and integration of the vari- 
ous areas in the curriculum? Which present knowledge 
through the eyes and the ears? They include charts, maps, 
books, flat pictures, slides, filmstrips, motion pictures, radio, 
television, stereographs, models, dioramas, realia, recordings, 
phonograph records, lectures, story-hours, demonstrations, 
tableaux and dramatics. 


mere showing of these aids does not mean effective audio- 
visual enrichment. That entails a grasp of the interrelation- 
ship of various areas in the curriculum and careful and intelli- 
gent selection of these aids which are so potent in enriching 
them. Audio- visual enrichment means the realization that one 
area cannot be taught alone, that this integration and enrich- 
ment must cause the learning experience to become vital, 
human, sensory, through related areas. The challenge for 
more care and deeper understanding in the selection of these 
aids, for quality, authenticity and vividness of appeal, is in- 
creasing with the greater demands for this effective method 
which produces more learning in less time— and happy learn- 

Not only quality, authenticity, fitness and vividness of ap- 
peal in relation to the content of the curriculum area or areas 
are important in the selection of these aids, but an understand- 
ing of their relative advantages in different teaching situa- 
tions. This relative advantage of each aid and of combinations 
of aids must be considered in connection with each teaching 
and learning situation. 

The teacher herself, and under her guidance, the teacher- 
in-training or pupil, should understand how to evaluate 
the authenticity, quality and relationship of these concrete 
teaching aids, and the advantage of each type or com- 
bination. She may feel that appeal to the eye is sufficient 
in a given learning situation or she may decide that appeal 



to the ear is also needed for the best presentation of 
her subject matter. Again, after careful evaluation of the 
various aids available, she may be convinced that three- 
dimensional objects, models and dioramas, or three-dimen- 
sional pictures— stereographs— will make a more concrete 
and realistic impression upon the children since they 
stimulate the sense of touch which is strong in everyone, espe- 
cially in children. Today, polaroid filters make it possible to 
project three-dimensional pictures in color. These three- 
dimensional visual aids enable boys and girls to feel more 
completely the reality of the experience and actually to partici- 
pate in it. Or, she may feel that the projection of slides com- 
bined with the motion picture will make the learning situation 
more vital. In each case, the choice of audio-visual aids must 
be suited to the purpose of the lesson. 

effective learning is secured only through effective teach- 
ing, that method or those methods of teaching should 
be used which bring to the child most eflFectively and 
economically the desired results. An important outcome is a 
joyous attitude towards learning as well as the ability to ex- 
perience the content in learning with resultant experiences 
which help him develop into a happy, active individual, able 
to live with himself and with society. Audio-visual enrichment 
of the curriculum as a teaching method stimulates thinking, 


quickens creative imagination, helps the child become ori- 
ented to the material which is presented to him. It calls forth 
spontaneous, enthusiastic and creative responses from boys 
and girls who are eager to see, to hear, to touch, to experience, 
who have great capacity for wonder and discovery, and for 
free and joyous expression. Integrated, enriched programs 
made possible by audio-visual aids, change the curriculum 
from stereotyped, formal, verbal learning in unrelated areas 
to vital and happy learning in related areas with provision for 

A student-teacher showing color prints to children— a visual experi- 
ence stimulating an appreciation of art and creative expression. 


individual thinking, feeling and doing in life-like situations 
and dynamic experiences. 

Audio-visual aids, like art, music, dramatics and the dance, 
are a common language, a common denominator among all 
people. They help develop and increase personal understand- 
ing and appreciation of the areas of learning which they hu- 
manize and enrich. They develop a better understanding of 
their relationship and of the interrelationship of all countries 
in the world today. 

Technical advance in the production of audio-visual aids 
has been great, fine equipment is ready, information for its 
use is at hand. The specific challenge is the school budget. 
How ideal the situation would be if each school might have 
suflBcient appropriation for an audio-visual room with ade- 
quate equipment, and a teacher trained in the selection and 
use of these aids, who would be in charge of this work without 
the burden of other teaching duties. For the success of this 
enrichment depends largely upon an understanding of what 
to use and how and when to use it. Such a person would con- 
trol and direct the successful distribution of these aids in the 
various classrooms at the time they are needed, for only thus 
can they be effective in making the various areas vital and 

There are educational, governmental, and commercial 
sources, where a helping hand is available in the selecting of 
these aids. Much material for school use can be procured at 
no expense; much at special rates. For many children trips to 


Museums contain many awe-inspiring evidences of life long ago, 
such as this huge skeleton of a carnivorous dinosaur. 


museums and libraries, historical monuments, factories, botan- 
ical gardens, shops, or dairies, with their original material in 
proper settings, make it possible for the learning situation 
to be the real experience. 



1. Lessen major weakness of verbalism. 

2. Humanize and vitalize subject matter. 

3. Provide interesting approach to new topics and give correct 
initial impression. 

4. Provide happy learning. 

5. Economize time in learning. 

6. Increase ability of retention. 

7. Aid in developing keen observation. 

8. Supply concrete material needed. 

9. Stimulate initiative of pupils in making materials. 

10. Stimulate creative responses in pupils. 

11. Provide the best substitute for real experience. 

12. Stimulate interest and aid in self-expression. 

13. Enrich and clarify instruction. 

14. Help in orienting the child to the world in which he lives. 



1. Audio-visual teaching aids must have some direct relation 
to lesson (they must not be mere entertainment). 

2. Audio-visual aids should be so selected as to supplement 
and enrich various areas in the curriculum. 

3. Audio-visual aids should be adapted to grade level. 

4. Audio-visual aids should be selected, combined and used in 
a way which vdll be most effective for a particular lesson. 

5. Audio-visual aids are not a separate subject but a vital teach- 
ing method. 

6. Preview all types of audio-visual materials before using in 


1. Material unsuited to a particular teaching situation. 

2. Too much material used at one time. 

3. Use of materials poor in quality. 

4. Use of materials unsuited to child's mental level. 

5. Failure to integrate the various aids to the teaching situa- 
tion or to the curriculum. 


II. Aids in War and Peac 

DURING WORLD WAR II, audio-visual aids, or, as they 
were called in the armed forces, "Training Aids," were 
vital in eflFective and speedy training of men and women in 
military and industrial knowledges and skills. Never before 
did a war require so much learning and training— training of 
soldiers, sailors, aviators, marines, wacs, waves, spars and 
workers in industrial units. These aids saved time in our train- 
ing camps, producing the desired results in the most eflFective 
and economical way. Pictures of war activities and techniques 
could be shown to classes of all sizes, providing the equipment 
and room facilities were adequate, so that all might see and 
hear to the best advantage. 

Many sound motion pictures, filmstrips, both silent and 
with recordings, glass and kodachrome slides, stereographs, 
charts, maps, posters, photographs, models— both solid, cuta- 
way, and with movable parts— were prepared by experts for 
our Government. These proved an outstanding success in the 
rapid and successful training of men in the armed forces and 
civilian war- workers. 

These Training Aids were helpful in orientation, in better 
understanding of the causes of the war, in the realization of 
the close relationship of civilian war-workers to those in the 
armed forces. They helped ground, sea, and air troops 
understand the terrain of various combat areas. They were 
vital in teaching how to give first aid to sick and wounded 
comrades. They swiftly and eflFectively trained the men to 



recognize instantly enemy aircraft and taught skills in operat- 
ing complicated machinery. They built up morale by inspiring 
confidence in ability to "carry on" in various combat areas. In 
addition, they were indispensable in training personnel for 
mass production, since they enabled the trainees to feel a real- 
istic and actual participation. 

AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS IN PEACE. Teachers will read- 
ily appreciate that these training aids and audio-visual tech- 
niques, which were so effective in wartime, are equally effec- 
tive in peacetime education. 

Today we are discussing peace in world terms. Time and 
distance, the greatest barriers to an understanding of various 
peoples, can be bridged by this effective method. Like a magic 
carpet, audio- visual aids can take our boys and girls to remote 
corners of the earth— or bring the world to the classroom. They 
can make possible a visit to the very homes of our near and far 
neighbors, and cover more ground in a shorter period of time 
than can be traversed by any other kind of transportation, 
even our swiftest airplanes. The better our boys and girls, for 
whose happiness in the world of tomorrow hosts of soldiers 
have fought and died, understand the people of other coun- 
tries, their culture and ideals, the more likely it is that they 
will be able to live together in peace. 

PROMOTE WORLD UNITY. Visual, audio, and audio- 
visual programs whether on the air, or in classrooms and 
auditoriums, will no longer be called the "Americana Series," 


fostering Americanism alone, but rather "The World of To- 
day Series/' furthering World unity. Ideals of democracy, 
knowledge of, and pride in, the builders of our democracy and 
their achievements both yesterday and today will be pre- 
sented to our boys and girls, in connection with ideals and 

A bulletin board can be used effectively to display graphically the 
common interests of diverse nations, and the blending of these into 
one world. 



achievements of other countries and their leaders. The impor- 
tance of common languages, similar interests, desires and 
goals cannot be overemphasized. Audio- visual aids will help 
bring full realization of the fact that we are all human individ- 
uals belonging to one world, preparing for a lasting peace. 

THERAPEUTIC VALUE. These "common denominators" 
—art, music, the dance, dramatics, audio-visual aids— have an- 
other important function in peacetime education. They have 
a therapeutic value which must not be underestimated or 
neglected. Programs enriched by audio-visual aids will help 
relieve the tension of the troubled days so recently over, pro- 
viding a healing power. We all know the potency of music in 
healing, arousing and inspiring; the power of color to help the 
mentally ill; of pictures to bring mental relaxation, comfort 
and inspiration. We are convinced in school education, as in 
the education of the armed forces, that audio- visual aids in- 
duce greater interest, and happier, more effective learning 
and longer remembering in less time. 

Universal adoption of this effective and happy way of teach- 
ing and learning, already used before and during the war in 
many of our educational institutions and widely developed 
by educational specialists in many branches of the armed 
forces, will make our schools dynamic centers of community 
life, will orient our boys and girls for world citizenship. If 
these learning and training tools have been so potent in bring- 
ing victory to the world, they will be equally effective in ban- 


ishing the ignorance, misunderstanding, greed, and hate 
which hinder a universal peace. Boards of education, associa- 
tions of parent teachers, mothers' clubs, museums, libraries, 
religious, governmental and commercial organizations vs^ill 
recognize this, and be generous in their assistance with funds, 
gifts and loans for the schools. 


III. I ypical Classroom Aids 

IT IS UNFORTUNATE that to many the term "visual or 
audio-visual aids" today still means principally the motion 
picture and the lantern slide. For a true picture of what con- 
stitutes audio-visual aids it would be well to take a census of 
all the teaching aids and materials which might justifiably be 
included in this category. 

BLACKBOARD AND CHALK. One of the first and old- 
est of the visual aids, one which is still in use today, is a piece 
of chalk and a blackboard. This combination is an ever-effec- 
tive one, and no schoolroom should be without it. There are 
times when the presentation of any subject can be most effec- 
tively achieved by means of a "chalk talk" or blackboard dem- 
onstration. Both teacher and student should use this medium, 
and students should be encouraged to go to the blackboard 
and illustrate their presentation of lesson assignments by 
means of writing or drawing on the blackboard. 

BULLETIN BOARDS. From blackboard to bulletin board 
is a natural transition. This board may be a single piece of 
homosote or heavy cardboard, framed and hung in a class- 
room, or it may be a large board or series of boards for school 
corridor, Hbrary, study rooms or school museum. Whatever 
its size, it affords an opportunity to display pictures, charts, 
maps, notices, specimens, newspaper clippings and all types 
of materials which it may be desirable to display in the course 



of school programs. Material displayed on a bulletin board 
naturally attracts attention. Therefore, great care should be 
used in selecting items for posting on this board. An attractive 
arrangement of the items thus posted is also a factor in catch- 
ing the eye and holding the interest of the observer. 

BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS. Illustrated textbooks and 
books of any nature included in the learning experience of 
the child should then be examined. If a school program is to 
be effective, it is highly important that illustrations, particu- 
larly those in the textbooks used, be of a high standard. Many 
an otherw^ise good text may be totally inadequate to meet stu- 
dents* needs because of poor or badly chosen illustrations. 
Those entrusted with the adoption of texts should keep this 
point in mind when selecting textbooks. The school librarian 
should be consulted in this matter, for her training and experi- 
ence in the actual utilization of books gives her an insight into 
what appeals and what has meaning to children. Teachers, 
supervisors, .principals and parents should all insist that the 
illustrations in books of every type be selected with as great 
care as the textual matter. It is through illustrations that the 
reader *s attention is focused upon certain facts. Therefore, the 
pictures which illustrate and elaborate textual content should 
present a true and meaningful concept. Better illustrations 
mean better visual education. 

FLAT PICTURES. No matter how well illustrated the text- 
book in use may be, every teacher finds it helpful to have 


additional pictorial material on hand to enrich a lesson. Beau- 
tiful color reproductions of works of art, peoples and costumes 
of other lands, famous places in other parts of the world, all 
help to make the world around him live for the student. Good 
reproductions in black and white are also extra aids to the 
enrichment and vitalization of lessons. 

The question as to whether black and white pictures or col- 
ored pictures are to be preferred, is practically impossible to 
answer positively and finally. In general, it might be said that 
colored pictures present objects and things as they are and, 
therefore, give a truer likeness. This is true if the color process 
by which the picture is made is satisfactory, and the color 
tones are faithful to the original. If the colors are not true to 
life, it might be better to have good black and white reproduc- 
tions. In scientific and technical illustrations and diagrams it is 
often better to have black and white pictures, for details and 
lines are more distinctly and clearly shown. 

A good collection of flat pictures should be available to 
every teacher. It is a good practice to have a general reference 
collection for the school, one on which each teacher may draw, 
and also for each teacher to have a special collection of her 
own, particularly pertinent to her own subject or class needs. 
The school collection may contain pictures of both general 
and specific nature, collections of reproductions of master- 
pieces, and special posters and prints. The class collection may 
be made up of pictures from magazines and newspapers, art 
work of students, photographs, posters, postal cards, advertis- 



ing brochures, etc. These pictures should all be mounted, or 
kept in cellophane or manila envelopes for protection. They 
should also be filed so that they are accessible when needed. 

CARTOONS AND COMICS. The cartoon is a unique 
pictorial medium which has long had a visual appeal and 
which has assumed even greater importance in the last few 
years. If a cartoon is well-drawn, the work of a clever artist 
who can graphically tell his story in picture form, it is a visual 

Students find pleasure and profit in preparing their own cartoons 
to enliven subjects being studied. 



aid which is unique, easily understandable and appealing. The 
cartoon has had a very potent effect in politics, and students 
of economics and history realize the power which it can wield. 
There is a definite place for the cartoon in the list of effective 
visual aids for classroom use. 

When the cartoon is reduced to the level of the slightly 
ludicrous or is poorly drawn, it loses its effectiveness. Many 
so-called "comic strips'' and books of comics have become 
exceedingly popular with boys and girls. The appeal of this 
type of material lies, of course, in the universal attraction 
which pictures hold for young and old alike. Unfortunately, 
many of these comics are neither well-drawn nor is the subject 
matter well-chosen. Those who are responsible for them have 
had commercial returns in mind rather than educational value. 
There is no valid reason why this type of pictorial presentation 
could not be utilized for teaching purposes if more care were 
given to the production of worthwhile picture stories. 

It may be that if less emphasis were placed on the designa- 
tion "comics," and more on the connotation "cartoon," this 
pictorial medium would better serve educational purposes. 
The dictionary definition of cartoon, "a picture especially in- 
tended to affect public opinion as to some matter or person," 
should be one criterion to keep in mind when selecting mate- 
rial of this type. A teacher does not deliberately select poorly 
drawn or inferior color prints for use in the art class. So with 
cartoons, careful selection should be the determining factor 
when including them with other visual aids. If well-drawn 



and thoughtfully prepared, they may be a vital, pictorial me- 
dium for the presentation of many different subjects. 

world is "map conscious" to a degree never before known to 
teacher and student. It is vitally important that every teacher 
have available a good collection of aids to help bring this 
world of ours clearly within the focus of understanding of her 
pupils. In order to accomplish this, she should have several 
types of maps in her collection. No one map or type of map is 
adequate to do the complete work of teaching all the geo- 
graphic concepts necessary to an understanding of our mod- 
ern world. The school collection should contain good political 
maps, physical maps, world maps, special area maps, Mer- 
cator projection maps, polar-centered projection maps, old 
maps and pictorial and cartoon maps. As special needs or 
problems arise, it should be possible for teacher and student 
to bring to the classroom the particular type of map which is 
designed to assist in clarifying this situation. Pictorial and 
cartoon maps will frequently be found helpful in humanizing 
geographic concepts. 

The same care and judgment should be used in selecting 
maps as are used in selecting flat pictures. A map is a picture 
of the world or some portion of the world. The map pictures 
selected for any lesson should be those best adapted to meet 
the need of the student at the moment at which they are used. 
Many teachers prefer using a variety of maps ( political map, 


ancient map, modern map, etc. ) so that a complete story may 
be told. This is very good when the question under consider- 
ation involves exploration and changing world frontiers. 

The picture conveyed by a map will always be more com- 
plete if a globe is used in conjunction with the map. Globes 
are needed to keep before the student the picture of the world 
as it is; globes bring the world itself into the classroom for 
interpretation and consideration. As with maps, there are dif- 

Globes and maps, used in conjunction with each other, give stu- 
dents a better understanding of geography. 



ferent types of globes: political, physical, desk model, floor 
model, etc. It is advisable to have several diflPerent types of 
globes in the school collection. 

Charts and graphs are aids which belong in the classifica- 
tion with maps and globes. Charts, particularly those showing 
time lines and historical sequences, help to visualize historical 
development. Diagrammatic charts, such as those illustrating 
the structure of governments or community organization, and 
picture graphs all aid in bringing before students' eyes a pic- 
ture of the world and the things upon it. 

DIORAMAS. There is available today a visual aid which 
originated in the museums of the United States and which is 
only just beginning to be used effectively in the classrooms. 
It is the diorama. The term "diorama** is derived from the 
Greek and means "to see through." The diorama itself may be 
defined as: "The miniature, three-dimensional group consist- 
ing of small modeled and colored figures and specimens, with 
accessories, in an appropriate setting, and in most instances 
artificially lighted. The scale and size of the group is variable; 
there is no standard shape; there is no limitation as to subject 
matter, which may be realistic or imaginative according to 
what the creator of the group wishes to portray." * 

Forerunners of the diorama are to be found in the religious 
crib, displayed at Christmas time, in small carved stage sets 

* Defined by Cypher, LF., "The Development of the Diorama in the Museums 
of the United States." New York: New York University, 1942, Ph.D. Thesis. 



and models, in panoramas, and in the natural habitat groups 
found in museums. The diorama, or small group, is an inexpen- 
sive, practical way of bringing the world of reality and of im- 
agination into the classroom. 

As the average diorama for classroom use is usually about 
12 inches high by 24 inches long by 12 inches deep, it will 
easily fit on a teacher *s desk or on a window-sill, a table or a 
shelf in the average classroom. Small-scale dimensions have 
not proved a barrier to its effectiveness. And the three-dimen- 
sional qualities of the diorama enable it to give an illusion of 
reality which makes it an excellent medium whereby to visu- 
alize and vitalize any subject. Cardboard cut-outs, mechanis- 
tic groups with moving trains and tractors, and Punch and 
Judy theaters are not dioramas. A diorama may be made by 
pupils, by teachers, or by both working together. The illusion 
of reality makes the diorama an excellent aid in teaching his- 
torical and geographical subjects, for its three-dimensional 
qualities and modeled figures give depth and body to any 
scene presented. 

found helpful to have actual specimens or scale-models to il- 
lustrate certain lessons. When using materials of this nature, 
great care should be taken to explain to students whether or 
not they are seeing and handling a true-size specimen or a 
model made to scale. In the vocational and industrial and 
mechanical arts classes, the making of the models often con- 



stitutes the lesson itself. In other subject areas the skills uti- 
lized in making the models may be incidental to a knowledge 
of how the object moves and works and functions. Specimens 
are an important aid in science classes and nature study 
classes. Actual specimens of birds, animals, reptiles, flowers 
or rocks are important in teaching how to recognize these 
objects. Specimens of Indian beadwork, Venetian glass, Afri- 
can ivory carvings are priceless, not because of their intrinsic 
monetary value, but because the handling and seeing of them 
gives the student an opportunity to contact the work and arti- 
facts of another people. Firsthand contact with the crafts of 
another people does much to level barriers. 

OPAQUE MATERIALS. This type of material and the 
opaque projector are of great advantage in schools where it 
is diflBcult to procure other audio-visual aids. Pictures from 
magazines and books, color-prints, original drawings in black 
and white or in color, and postcards may be used. Even the 
most distant rural communities would have some of these 
materials available. 

Pictures and objects may be presented separately or in re- 
lated sequence. Pictures shown by the latter method are more 
effective if they are mounted on a strip of paper of the width 
required for use in the projector, and long enough to take care 
of the picture sequence. This strip of pictures may be folded, 
placed on the picture-plate of the projector, and each picture 
on the strip released as desired. 


The disadvantage of the opaque projector is that it is heavy 
to carry and more difficult to "frame" the picture for projec- 

LANTERN SLIDES. Lantern shdes were one of the first 
teaching aids to be called "visual aids." Today a teacher should 
specify whether she is using the "standard" lantern slide, 
which in America is 3/4 inches high by 4 inches long, or the 
small 2x2 inch slide. This latter slide, if it is a photograph in 
natural color, is usually called Kodachrome (really a trade 

The versatile opaque projector makes possible the use of many 
varying visual materials. 



name), and refers to the picture in color on 35 mm. film which 
has been processed and mounted in a 2x2 inch mount or 
frame. This same 2x2 inch size lantern slide, however, may 
consist of black and white film so that, properly, we should 
not call this size slide Kodachrome. 

The standard 3/4 x 4 inch lantern slide may be drawn in ink 
or crayon on clear glass, etched glass, or cellophane, or luma- 
rith, covered with a cover glass and bound; or it may be made 
by a photographic process and the resulting photographic 
slide covered with a cover glass, masked, and bound. In either 
case, the result is a glass lantern slide ( in color or in black and 
white ) which must be inserted in a lantern slide projector and 
projected on a special screen, on a white wall, on a shade or 
other flat surface which enables one to see the picture. 

The small lantern slide, as explained before, is photographed 
either in color or in black and white. The resulting pictures 
are mounted singly either in cardboard mounts or put be- 
tween glass and bound as in the case of the standard slide. 
This latter process serves to protect and preserve the film. This 
slide, too, must be inserted in a projector and projected on a 

Whether the lantern slide is standard or small size, its value 
lies in the fact that ( 1 ) it brings pictorial material into the 
classroom; (2) the projection on a screen enlarges the picture 
so that it may be examined and studied; ( 3 ) the projected pic- 
ture remains still and steady so that details may be noted and 
commented upon. 


Lantern slides of either size may be made up in sets and 
shown in some particular rotation or they may be rearranged 
and shown in different order as the need dictates. As many or 
as few slides may be shown at a time as a teacher desires to 
use, and the operator of the projector determines the speed at 
which they are shown and changed. Each size lantern slide 
requires a projector constructed particularly for that size slide. 
However, where schools do not have projectors for the small 
size shdes, adapters to hold these slides may be made or pur- 
Large projectors, ordinarily used for showing standard 3^4 x 4 inch 
slides can easily be adapted for showing small 2x2 inch slides. 


chased, and used in standard size lantern slide projectors. 
As is true with many types of visual aids, the value of lan- 
tern slides may lie in the research and study involved when 
pupils themselves make the slides. Slides purchased or bor- 
rowed from commercial sources and servicing agencies will, 
of course, be more "finished" products and their value lies in 
the wide variety of material from all over the world that they 
bring to the classroom. 

tion of the lantern slide is found in the visual aid variously 
called filmslide, filmstrip and stillfilm. Stillfilm was the origi- 
nal trade name under which it was first manufactured and 
applied to a roll of film attached to a spool and pulled by hand 
through an adapter attached to a lantern slide projector. To- 
day spool and adapter are no longer used. Instead, especially 
designed projectors are made to project filmstrip. Filmstrip is 
the preferred name and the one most often used, although 
filmslide is not altogether incorrect. 

Filmstrip is made by photographing scenes or objects on 
narrow gauge, 35 mm. film, which contains sprocket holes 
along each side of the film. This film is processed and the fin- 
ished roll of film projected on a screen by means of the special 
projector. (Projectors are available which may be used for 
both filmstrip and the small size lantern slide. ) Filmstrip may 
be in black and white or in color. Titles may accompany each 
picture, or, as is often the case, a manual accompanies each 


roll of filmstrip and comments and explanations may be made 
by teachers or pupils. The operator of the projector controls 
the speed at which the filmstrip is turned and may turn the 
film forwards or backwards at will. One advantage of filmstrip 
is its lightness and portability, since twenty-five to one hun- 
dred pictures may be placed on a single strip of film which can 
then be rolled and stored in a small light metal container. If 

The filmstrip and its projector have the advantage of lightness and 



desired, the strip may be cut into single pictures and each pic- 
ture mounted in a 2x2 inch frame. Technically speaking, 
these are the "film slides" and the entire roll of film the film- 
strip. Teachers and students may make their own films trip, 
thereby gaining many valuable lessons in the production of 
visual aids. A disadvantage of filmstrip is that the sequence 
of arrangement is fixed so long as the strip is kept intact, and 
the order in which scenes are shown cannot be changed to suit 
different presentations. 

a double picture usually mounted on cardboard and inserted 
in a special viewer or instrument known as a stereoscope. The 
factor that makes this visual aid of value is that the flat pic- 
tures thus viewed take on three-dimensional qualities which 
make objects in the foreground stand out as though real 
against the background. This method of viewing scenes was 
popular in our grandmother's day and is still of value today. 
The photographs viewed have been taken by a camera with 
double lenses separated by a distance equal to that of the nor- 
mal distance between a man's eyes. One exposure is for the 
right eye and the other for the left. The resulting picture is 
viewed in a double optical unit in which the lenses are simi- 
larly spaced. When this viewer is properly focused by the one 
using it, the picture viewed takes on an illusion of depth and 


The stereograph is for individual use. It is an excellent vis- 
ual aid where it is desirable to have individual pupil research 
and study. It is, because of its nature, not entirely satisfactory 
for group study, although each member of a group may, of 
course, eventually view the same pictures. 

An adaptation of the stereograph, known as the orthovis or 
anaglyph, may ^Iso be used to achieve an illusion of reality. In 
this device a stereo graphic picture is printed in two colors 
(usually red and blue ) , one superimposed upon the other and 
examined through a special viewer containing one red lens 

For individual pupil study, stereoscopes are excellent visual aids. 



and one blue. The blending of the colors as seen through the 
viewer gives depth and roundness to the picture, making it 
seem quite real and lifelike. 

Still another adaptation of the stereograph is the vecto- 
graph. Here the print or picture may be in color or in black 
and white, but the two photographs taken are printed on op- 
posite sides of a polarizing film. The resultiAg print is then 
projected on a screen for individuals and groups to view. Each 
member of the group, however, must use a special polaroid 
viewer or the print will not appear to have three-dimensional 
qualities. This type of visual material was employed to a large 
degree by both the Army and the Navy during World War II 
and is being adapted for motion picture use. At* present it must 
be made by professionals and has not been used to any great 
extent by schools. 

MOTION PICTURES, It is no longer necessary to define 
a motion picture, for motion pictures are available in every 
community. For the classroom teacher the decision to make 
with regard to their use is whether or not to use sound or silent 
motion pictures, black and white or color, and 35 mm. or 
16 mm. film. 

The last problem is most easily answered. 35 mm. must be 
projected from a fireproof booth by a licensed operator. Few 
schools have either the equipment or the necessary operator 
so that this type of film is used mostly in large auditoriums or 
for special occasions. 


Most classroom motion pictures today are made in the 
16 mm. width, noninflammable, acetate base film. Some of the 
smaller 8 mm. width film is to be found, but this is generally in 
use in homes. The 16 mm. film has come to be almost standard 
school equipment. The usual reel contains four hundred feet 
of film and takes about 12 minutes to project. 

A student operating a sound motion picture projector in a Portland, 

Oregon, public school. 



The next two questions depend upon the school equipment, 
the need of the moment, and the technique best suited to 
meeting the need. If a school has only a silent projector, sound 
film cannot be used. If the projector is a sound projector, the 
sound track on a film may or may not be utilized. There are 
times when it is best for all purposes to run a film without the 
sound track so that students may not be influenced in any 
way, or so that the teacher may make her own comments. 

The question of whether to use black and white or color film 
is usually answered for the teacher by the film producers. 
Many films are obtainable only in black and white. Where 
color prints are available, the teacher herself should judge 
which type of film best meets the needs of her class. Good 
black and white is preferable to poor colors. Many subjects, 
such as operation of machines and similar topics, are clearest 
when shown in black and white. Color is helpful when iden- 
tifying geographic features, peoples, costumes and natural 
objects. Color processing has improved, and films taken in true 
color seem generally to take on a greater degree of reality than 
those taken in black and white. 

The motion picture, because of the factor of motion, shows 
peoples and objects in action. This very factor, however, cou- 
pled with the speed at which a film is projected makes it im- 
possible to hold any one scene for lengthy examination, but 
the movement and action in the film have the advantage of 
creating an illusion of reality and make subjects real to 


Teachers should never use motion pictures for teaching pur- 
poses without first previewing them. Where sound effects are 
essential to the understanding of the subject matter shown, 
sound films should always be used. The motion picture should 
not be used to "fill in" vacant periods, for recreation only 
(except in cases where the program is frankly an entertain- 
ment), or as a substitute for careful, well-planned teaching. 
The motion picture is not a rapid, sure-fire way of teaching 
everything and should not be considered as such. 

Motion pictures are available today for use in practically 
every subject area. Excellent films are available from commer- 
cial and industrial sources, from museums, from community 
organizations, clubs, historical societies, state and federal 
agencies and many other sources. They should be brought into 
the classroom and used wherever and whenever possible. 

It is not difficult to learn to run a motion picture projector. 
Every teacher worthy of the name should learn to use this 
equipment and make it part of her methodology and tech- 
niques. Schools should provide the best equipment they can 
aflFord and principals should see to it that teachers have the 
opportunity to use the equipment to best advantage for all 

It has often been found advantageous to form "Visual In- 
struction Squads" and train students in the use of visual equip- 
ment. This practice has helped meet the need for projectionists 
when only one teacher knows how to run the machines, and 
has also instilled a respect for the equipment in the students 



themselves. Such squads, however, should always be under 
teacher guidance and supervision for best results. It is also a 
practice which works best with older students. Younger stu- 
dents are more likely to be careless with equipment and to 
become upset when mechanical difficulties arise. 

Many schools and classrooms today have facilities for the uti- 
lization of radio, and phonographic recordings in classrooms 
and auditoriums. The phonograph and records are fairly well 
known to most people. Records used in schools may be orches- 
tral selections, instrumental pieces, songs, dances or speeches. 

In addition to the kinds of records just listed, there is the 
transcription, or recording made of a radio program, a speech 
or other public event. These transcriptions make it possible 
to bring into the classroom programs and speeches dealing 
with current events and the spoken word, and help to vitalize 
facts that might otherwise be little more than the printed 
word on a page of a textbook. Schools should be equipped 
with phonographs and play-back machines so that these re- 
cordings may be used in conjunction with other types of 

Radio is a two-way audio-visual aid— it works from without 
and from within the school. Programs originating in radio 
studios, under technical supervision and professionally di- 
rected, may be brought into the classroom through the me- 
dium of radio sets and loudspeakers installed in the classroom. 


By this means, programs prepared directly for school use, 
famous concerts, public events, may all be made a part of the 
learning experience of the students. 

Radio from "within" the school may take the form of pro- 
grams prepared and carried out by the students themselves. 
If public address equipment and microphones are installed in 

The phonograph is a valuable audio aid in nursery school as well 
as with older groups. 



a school, Students can then put on their own programs. The 
experience gained from writing scripts, timing and planning 
programs, and carrying out mechanical details are all of great 
value for students today. Frequently this type of experience 
lays the groundwork for future vocational training. 

ONSTRATIONS. The human voice is the first "audio-aid" 
that a teacher has to draw upon. Well-told stories, whether in 
nursery school or high school classrooms, make vivid and last- 
ing impressions. Many times some legend or little-known ac- 
count of details not covered in a textbook will change pupil 
attitudes and reactions towards a subject. Teachers should 
include the telling of stories by themselves and by pupils in 
their planning of audio-visual aid programs. 

The story illustrated by carefully selected lantern slides, 
pictures, films, dioramas or other visual aids, which supple- 
ment the details supplied by vocal descriptions, can be made 
an effective aid in a teaching program. This type of presenta- 
tion is particularly important in the area of social studies, art 
and English, but it could also be used to advantage for mathe- 
matics, science and vocational studies. 

Science teachers have for years been familiar with demon- 
strations whereby certain principles in chemistry, biology, or 
physics have been shown. Scientific equipment, such as micro- 
scopes and other apparatus have been used in these demon- 
strations. This equipment should be supplemented today with 


the inclusion of the other aids already mentioned. Demonstra- 
tions of techniques should not be confined to the science 
classes, but should be utilized in all subject areas. 

leaux, plays, in fact, all dramatic presentations are audio- 
visual aids. This is particularly true when the dramatic pres- 
entation is built around some historical event or social episode. 
In the preparation and presentation of such programs all the 
various types of visual aids may be called upon; slides may be 

All dramatic presentations are audio-visual aids whether they be 
flower pageants by elementary pupils, or elaborate performances. 



shown for the makers of the stage scenery and costumes to 
study; records played to famiharize the orchestra with the 
music; radio programs hstened to as models of good speech 
and diction. 

The final presentation itself is, of course, an audio and a 
visual program both for those giving it and for those watching. 
Although the entertainment factor may seem uppermost in 
such presentations, many lessons are learned in the prepara- 
tory period that will be of value in more formal class periods. 

Songs and dances are an almost universal language for man- 
kind. An understanding of the songs and dances of another 
people leads to an understanding of the people themselves. 
Songs and dances should be included both in single class proj- 
ects and in group and school projects. 

^'TREASURE TRIPS'-FIELD TRIPS. The audio-visual 
aids described thus far have all been those used within the 
classroom or school building, but there often comes a time 
when effective teaching demands contact with materials out- 
side the school. "Treasure trips" or field trips supply this need, 
but they are of real value only when carefully planned and 
correlated with classroom work. 

The treasure trip may be a visit to^ museum or community 
center where objects of art, natural history, or science may be 
seen under the guidance of trained leaders and in accordance 
with pre-planned programs. It is a field trip, but one in which 
the teacher knows that every step of the way has been planned 


This Baluchitherium just won't fit into a classroom. Treasure trips 
to museums are invaluable when correlated properly with school 



to fit into a definite over-all pattern designed to enrich the 
students* experiences. 

Field trips may be taken to parks, zoos, famous buildings, 
docks, factories, libraries, stores, to any place whose resources 
will help vitalize the lesson of the moment. The best trips are 
those well-planned in advance; those for which preparatory 
and follow-up work are provided; those which do not include 
so great a variety of things to see that physical fatigue inter- 
feres with appreciation of the things seen; those in which the 
student is encouraged to return on his own time or with his 
parents to see more. The field trip combines the hearing and 
seeing of things, and a teacher should try to include at least 
one, and sometimes many, such experiences in her programs. 

COLOR AND SOUND. The use of color and sound has 
taken on increased importance today. The world around us 
has color, and we are constantly listening to sounds. 

In selecting audio-visual aids the teacher should strive to 
get those which give as realistic and natural pictures of sub- 
jects as possible. In the selection of sound equipment, those 
aids should be used which give as good tonal qualities as pos- 
sible. It is better to use non-colored and silent materials than 
to use those which give false impressions. 

Research in these two fields, however, has made great 
strides. Motion pictures, slides, filmstrips, dioramas, and 
most of the other aids mentioned in this chapter, have reached 
a point where there seems but little more that can be done to 


improve them. The changes that will be made to adapt them 
to meet teaching situations more eflFectively will be in the 
application and use of color and sound. 

RELATIVE ADVANTAGES. There is no one perfect 
audio-visual aid. The sooner we find this out, the better. 
The audio-visual aid, or combination of aids, which can pro- 
duce the most effective result in a given teaching situation 
should be considered best— but only in that situation. 

When an illusion of reahty is desired, a diorama will usually 
achieve this. When it is desirable to see persons and things in 
action, living and moving, the motion picture is usually the 
best aid to employ. When lengthy and detailed examination 
is desired, the best results will probably be attained by the use 
of mounted pictures, lantern slides, and filmstrips— or actual 
specimens themselves. Diction and speech are helped by listen- 
ing to recordings of famous speakers and to radio programs. 

No one can tell a teacher exactly what to use. The good 
teacher knows the pupils in her class, their weaknesses and 
their strength. If she is worthy the designation of teacher, she 
will have as many types of supplementary materials at hand 
as possible, and then use them singly, or in combinations, in 
the ways which she feels will help her make the subject under 
consideration come alive and acquire reality and solidity for 
her pupils. Audio-visual aids are particularly effective in cer- 
tain types of programs. Succeeding chapters will indicate 
what these are and offer suggestions for using them. 


THE APPEAL TO THE EAR today is increasingly exten- 
sive. Through the radio which may be found in most homes 
and many schools, we have all developed the habit of listen- 
ing. No other medium is more powerful in social life and edu- 
cation in making children— and adults— world-conscious. No 
other medium can make it possible for so many to share an 
experience at the same time. No other medium can so com- 
pletely remove space and time and so effectively eliminate 
differences between city and rural ways of living in various 

RADIO. Radio programs are not only popular in appeal but 
many of them are of direct or indirect educational value. 
Through the imagination of the listeners which creates pic- 
tures in keeping with the audio appeal, there is also strong 
appeal to feeling, to emotion. The play or dramatized story is 
vitalized by sound effects, the characters take on form and per- 
sonality as the listener identifies himself with the action of the 
plot. Many radio programs have definite educational objec- 
tives. Several of the programs of the large nation-wide radio 
networks are planned to integrate with various areas in the 
curriculum, to increase the interest of boys and girls and to 
promote leisure reading. 

Some educational programs are more effective for school 
use in one part of the country than another, because of the 



time element which allows the inclusion of these programs 
during school hours. Other programs, not available in school 
hours, also serve to enrich and vitalize literature, humanize 
history and the sciences, encourage the desire for good music. 
Short stories, novels, plays, even Shakespearean dramas, are 
presented. Various "Theaters of the Air" in which well-known 
managers, actors and authors take part, not only enrich litera- 
ture per se, but promote, by example, better diction and voice 
and a richer vocabulary. Often they encourage the applica- 
tion of the interest aroused by the program to the writing of 
original material. Boys and girls may be guided in their crit- 
ical judgment of programs which are truly literary and equally, 
if not more, interesting, than those which are of no value 
in the enrichment of any area of the curriculum or in char- 
acter development. 

Although the radio must entertain as well as educate, the 
two may go hand-in-hand. Educators, broadcasters, sponsors 
should— and no doubt will— cooperate more closely and more 
intelligently, for only by each recognizing and understanding 
the aims and problems of the other, can better and more 
stimulating educational programs be prepared which will be 
acceptable, also, from the point of view of entertainment. 
Then the radio, through station programs, their transcriptions 
and recordings, will become an increasingly powerful audio- 
aid in education. What radio has accomplished for politics, 
news, and commercial advertising, it can and should do for 


Today, more than ever before, radio programs bring the 
world to the home and the classroom, bridging time and 
space. Radio is of inestimable value as a medium of com- 
munication in an age of communication. It is our greatest 
means of communication, since distance from centers of learn- 
ing is no hindrance. In the United States alone there are four 
coast-to-coast networks, thirty-five regional networks, nine 
hundred and thirty local stations, and sixty-five thousand 
fifteen-minute units of program service daily. Under a new 
system of radio engineering, "frequency modulation," there 
may be as many as ten networks. But why are there, today, so 
few educational institutional stations? Is it lack of funds, lack 
of interest, lack of technique? Why are there not more stations 
like WHA College of the Air, the University of Wisconsin's 
"broadcasting outlet" in Madison, which brings to its listeners 
courses conducted by University professors, home and agri- 
cultural information through the Home Makers' Hour and 
Farm Program? Surely this station has been an aid to com- 
munity education. 

TELEVISION. Radio has, of course, supplied information 
through the medium of "hearing." Television will bring to us 
the "seeing" or visual medium. When we actually show a 
program in a classroom as well as listen to it, audio-visual aids 
will be functioning as complete units for the enrichment of 
classroom teaching. There is no doubt but that television has 
great possibilities as a visual aid. It also has limitations which 



have not as yet been overcome in a suiSicient degree to make 
it possible to use television to any extent in the classroom 
itself. Scientists and engineers are making progress, however, 
and it is to be expected that these difficulties will soon be 

The entertainment potentialities of television are accepted 
facts today. The educational potentialities have not yet been 
fully realized. At present the size of the screen on which the 
televised image or picture is shown is too small for classroom 
use. The average class is too large to be seated so that all may 
see the picture. Secondly, television sets are expensive and the 
value to be derived from their use is not sufficient to warrant 
expenditure of school funds for this type of equipment. Larger 
television screens are being manufactured and it has been 
predicted that in about five years' time television sets will 
be as common as radio sets are today. 

• The usual procedure now is for classes to visit a television 
studio if this medium is to be employed as a teaching aid. 
Most of the larger broadcasting companies are planning tele- 
vision programs suitable for junior and senior high school 
classes, but the classes must go to the studio to see or partici- 
pate in the programs. Classes from schools in the cities where 
these studios are located have access to the television pro- 
grams. It is difficult, however, for classes in rural areas to make 
trips to the studios. The programs are thus not available to 


Scene from a high school student forum on current topics televised 
over WCBS-TV in collaboration with the New York City Board 
of Education. 

AIR AND AIR PRESSURE. The American Museum of 
Natural History has pioneered in the presentation of educa- 
tional programs through the medium of television. The fol- 
lowing program is the result of a memorandum prepared by 
Mr. Julius P. Postal, Supervisor of Radio and Sound, for 
Dr. Charles Russell, Chairman of the Department of Educa- 
tion, both of that museum. It was prepared in order to give 
an idea of the potentialities and limitations of television. The 
film "Air and Air Pressure" used in the program was particu- 
larly well adapted to illustrate how the characteristics of tele- 
vision can be used to advantage. A plan to make special films 
for television use giew out of extensive experience in the 
presentation of experimental scientific and educational tele- 



casts. Some of these were entirely "live/' Others combined 
"live" appearances by actors and scientists with film material. 

It soon became apparent that live science telecasts were 
not only severely trying to the scientists, but were costly, 
time-consuming, and had an embarrassing way of developing 
unpredicted quirks. For instance, snakes would become nerv- 
ous or extremely active under the hot lights. Or life-like 
artificial flowers of the type for which the Museum is famous, 
would soften and melt. Then, ultra close-ups involving f oUow- 
focus, which require extreme care under the most favorable 
circumstances, would go out of focus at precisely the wrong 

The technical problems are not insurmountable; they are 
well on the way to solution. But it is unlikely that the move- 
ments of a baby raccoon are ever going to be as predictable 
and as controllable as those of a trained actor or actress. 

The simplest of laboratory demonstrations, which presents 
no problem in a high school physics laboratory, can put a tele- 
vision crew into a state of fidgets when it is a matter of split- 
second timing. 

One thing that will probably never be eliminated is the 
ever-present need in television for rehearsal, more rehearsal, 
and still more rehearsal. To a school, a teacher, or a scientist, 
the time factor is apt to be a real deterrent. Furthermore, once 
a thing is done before a television camera, and has gone out 
over the air, it cannot be recalled, re-edited, or done over 
again. This is a limitation from which film, fortunately, does 


not suffer. Also, in film production, the burden of carrying off 
an easy, natural, sustained performance is not as trying to 
the amateur-actor, given proper direction, as it is in television. 

In short, although television potentially has an immediacy 
and a directness which film cannot duplicate today, television 
will always have to lean upon motion picture techniques for 
flexibility which is not inherent in the new medium. 

Many television people look to films as a- means of cutting 
down the high cost of producing "live" telecasts. Although 
there are film-wise people in television today, a great many 
other people associated with the new art do not sufficiently 
appreciate the costs of film production. Whether pre-filming 
will actually afford material savings to television companies 
remains to be seen. However, pre-filming will prove a boon 
where studio and rehearsal facilities are limited. It will also 
ease the problem of personnel allocation during the actual 

The usefulness of television in the classroom will depend 
to a large extent upon the production of less costly receivers 
and the availability of large-screen receivers. The production 
of these is merely a matter of time, as is also the production of 
color television. 

To meet immediate possibilities for television, the program 
"Air and Air Pressure" was prepared as a television film-pro- 
ject. It is designed to demonstrate a few scientific principles 
by means of things which are available in the home environ- 
ment. It may be used as a guide for classroom demonstrations. 




A Tele-Science Production 

Pnotoorapned and produced by 
Julius and Naomi Postal 

All ^ 

we want 

to do is to 

show you a lew 

simple demon - 

strations wKicli you can | 


in your 

own home. 




can hi 

? found i 

in textbooks. 

(Music under the following titles) 
Opening Title: air and air pressure* 
Second Title: a tele-science production 
Third Title: photographed and produced by 


Fourth Title: all we want to do is to show you 


* This is part of an actual script of a television broadcast. ( The left-hand 
column represents the "video", or, visual component of the telecast— what 
would be seen on the viewer of the television receiver. The right-hand column 
is the narration to be spoken to explain and supplement the "video".) The 
narration has now been recorded on film and the entire program is available 
as a standard 16mm. sound film which can be run on any standard sound 
projector. It is available through The American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, N. Y. ( Copyright 1946 by Julius and Naomi Postal. ) 




A tumbler of soap-suds with 
a bubble pipe sticking out of 
the tumbler. Someoneis blow- 
ing into the pipe but we can- 
not see his face, 


stream over the side of the 
tumbler onto the table. 

MEDIUM shot: a small boy is 
blowing a long festoon of 
bubbles which pyramid down 
to the table. 

This boy is demonstrating a 
well-known phenomenon. He 
is blowing air through a bub- 
ble pipe into soapy water. The 
air rises in the form of glob- 
ules surrounded by a very 
thin, taut film of soapsuds. 

Every molecule in the soapy 
film strongly attracts every 
other molecule in the film. 

The air inside each soap bub- 
ble is under pressure— greater 
than that of the surrounding 



A single large bubble grows The pressure of the air inside 
upward out of the pipe bowl, the bubble is further in- 
creased because the soap film 
tends to contract and shrink 

MEjyivM SHOT of Mother blow- You'll notice that Mother is 
ing bubbles through wand- not using a regulation bubble 
like affair at camera. pipe. She doesn't have to, 

because glycerine and other 
chemicals have been added to 
the bubble fluid to increase 
the surface tension and cause 
bubbles to form more readilv. 
( 2 second pause ) These bub- 
bles will last longer, before 
bursting, than those formed 
with ordinary soapy water. 


Starting with low angle shot. There's just no trick to it at 


Daddy's hands insert four 
ordinary soda straws into a 
jar containing some bubble 

Daddy's hands begin to lift 
the straws out of the bubble 

Anybody can do it. 

Yes, anybody, including Dad- 
dy can do it. But Daddy has 
to experiment. Will it work 
with ordinary soda straws? 
What do you think? . . . 

LONG SHOT, from side: Daddy Daddy gets more bubbles, but 
lifts the four straws to his lips, they are smaller. 

A cascade of small bubbles Bubble pipes may serve no 
issues from the straws. other purpose than amuse- 

ment. On the other hand, 



LONG SHOT of tof of Washing 
machine. The agitator is 
working. On top of the water 
is a layer of creamy suds that 
appears to he two or three 
inches thick. 

Identical set-up as in previous 
shot. Mothers arm enters 
frame. She draws her hand 
through the layer of foam, 
leaving a long trail, then lifts 
up a handful of the very 
fluffy suds. 

bubbles in the laundry may 
indicate whether a tubful of 
water is ready to do the wash 

Most laundry soaps and pow- 
ders will lather richly if the 
water is "soft" and at the right 

Generous bubbling indicates 
that the soap is well distrib- 
uted throughout the water. 
The foam is now very light 
and fluffy. There is soap in 
this foam, but in the main, it 
consists of hundreds of thou- 
sands, perhaps millions, of 
tiny globes of air. 



MEDIUM SHOT of Mother tear- 
ing a newspaper into strips 
and pushing the strips loosely 
into a milk bottle. 

Peter, the cat, watches in- 

You can try this simple ex- 
periment with air pressure in 
your own home. 

A hard-boiled egg, from 
which the shell has been re- 
moved, is big enough to seal 
the mouth of the milk bottle, 
yet sufficiently yielding to 
squeeze through the neck of 
the bottle when pushed in by 
air pressure. 

Peter, the family cat, who 
loves to eat eggs, watches 
hungrily. Mother will give 
him the egg, after she re- 
trieves it from the bottle. 



Matches are struck and 
brought to the bottle's mouth. 

ultra-close-up: The matches 
are lowered into the neck of 
the bottle. 

The newspaper strips are seen 
burning brightly inside the 

The plan is to create a partial 
vacuum within the bottle so 
that the external air pressure 
will cause the egg to be 
sucked inside. We can accom- 
plish this by burning strips 
of paper inside the bottle. The 
heated air wall expand and 
some of it will be driven out. 

The egg is placed in 
mouth of the bottle. 

the Once the egg is in place, the 
flame will suffocate and go 
out. The expanded air will 
cool off and shrink in volume, 
thus giving us in the bottle 
the partial vacuum we need. 



CLOSE up: By stop-motion 
photography the eggs de- 
scent into the milk bottle is 
speeded up. After oozing, as 
it were, through the neck, it 
drops suddenly into the bot- 
tom of the bottle. 

This process usually takes 
several minutes. Stop-motion 
photography speeds up the 

LONG shot: Peter, the cat, is 
eating the remains of the egg 
out of a dish. 

Peter, the patient cat, gets 
the egg after Mother removes 
it from the bottle with a fork. 
Columbus may have made an 
egg stand on end, but 111 bet 
he never knew that trick! 




A five-gallon can is lifted onto How strong is a tin can? In a 
a gas range. A glassful of moment well see what 10,000 
water is poured into it. The pounds of atmospheric pres- 
flame is applied to the gas sure will do to it. By the way, 
burner. that's the pressure normally 

exerted by the air on a can of 
this size at sea level — 15 
pounds per square inch— or 
10,000 pounds over its entire 

LONG shot: Steam is seen 
issuing from the can. 

To create a partial vacuum in 
the can, we shall boil this 
water over the gas burner, 
and let the expanding steam 
drive out the air. 

This will take several minutes. 



Camera tilts upward until If you try this in your own 
steam fills most of the frame, home, be very careful, be- 
cause both the can and the 
steam get very hot. After the 
vapor has been coming out 
for two or three minutes, the 
next step is to screw on 
the cap quickly and turn oflF 
the flame. 

LONG shot: The can slowly The steam will now condense 
begins to buckle. and return to its original state 

—water. (Pause) Since we 
drove out the air previously, 
a partial vacuum results. 

The can is now seen severely Here is the can, crushed by 
buckled and distorted. 10,000 pounds— or five tons— 

of air pressure. 
( End title with music ) 65 

V. L/ramatic Presentations 

DRAMATICS AS a method of curriculum enrichment is 
not new. Children have always liked to "make believe," to 
act, to project themselves into all kinds of adventures. They 
enjoy improvising and need no scenery or costumes to make 
the situation a real one to them. They are, for the time being, 
the characters they portray. A home-made microphone is all 
that is necessary for a radio program, and even the micro- 
phone can be imagined! Radio programs planned and pre- 
sented by boys and girls have strong appeal in creative expres- 
sion, are eflFective in a review of work, and create a deep 
interest in the area or areas of study presented. Book reviews, 
poetry hours, original stories, plays, choral reading and public 
speaking, take on added interest through this medium. If 
"television" is desired, stereopticon or kodachrome slides may 
be used to produce the eflFect and add further enrichment. 

STAGE PRESENTATIONS. In an impromptu stage play, 
a table, chairs, and the suggestion of costumes are all that are 
needed. The imagination of the children will supply the rest. 
Perhaps that is why Chinese plays and Chinese paintings can 
always be understood and appreciated by children. They are 
able to feel and interpret the dramatic and painted scenes in 
the way the authors and painters meant them to do. 

When costumes and scenery are possible in a drajnatic pres- 
entation, whether tableau or "living picture", or the stage 
play, the visual appeal is stronger and— linked with the audio 



appeal— enables dramatics to become a powerful stimulus and 
aid in education. The enthusiasm which the simplest dramatic 
presentation kindles is in itself a guarantee to happy and effec- 
tive learning and also a relaxing, therapeutic experience. 

Through dramatizations, reticent children are often "drawn 
out of themselves" and their self-consciousness, and induced 
to spontaneous self-expression under happy conditions. The 
pageant, especially the community pageant, in which chil- 
dren of various nationalities often take part, promotes social 
tolerance and understanding as well as develops dramatic 
instincts and abilities. The pageant and operetta usually com- 
bine the cultural languages of all nations— drama, art, music 
and the dance. All those who deal with children know how 
versatile they are in all these media, how happy in each 
method of creative expression. Art, music, the dance, speech 
and diction are effectively integrated. 

STORY TELLING. Every good dramatic presentation— 
whether radio play, stage play, tableau, pageant or operetta 
—has at its heart the story. The sound effects of the radio play 
help the visual imagination, just as the scenery and costumes 
of the stage play add true visual appeal to the audio, help 
interpret the story and make it vivid, for plays are stories in 

Stories, presented graphically and dramatically, are helpful 
in any area of the curriculum, for there is inherent in every 


boy and girl a keen sense of the dramatic. Whatever is told 
them in a vivid, living way will never be forgotten. 

In the middle ages the story-teller, favorite of kings and 
queens, lords and ladies as well as of boys and girls, made 
vivid before his audience banqueting within the tapestried 
and torch-lighted hall, a jousting scene or tournament with 
brave knights contending; or the song-story of Aucassin and 
his fair, sweet lady Nicolette. In like manner the story-teller 

Story telling by the author Dr. Chandler in an Audio- Visual En- 
richment Program in Hunter College Elementary School evokes 
an enthusiastic response from her young audience. 


of today interprets and vitalizes art, music, the sciences, 
history, and hterature for boys and girls. Through the story 
the people of long ago become real and alive. There is a better 
understanding and enjoyment of the creations of their hands 
and minds and hearts. How much more vivid a story may be- 
come when visual aids— stereopticon and kodachrome slides, 
color-prints, habitat groups, dioramas and, most important of 
all, realia— add their appeal. 

For example, a story about Crusaders becomes so much 
more real and vital when, through visual aids, the audience 
sees a suit of armor made of thousands of carefully welded 
metal links, like that worn by King Richard of the Lion Heart! 
A glimpse of the great hall of a castle with jester, serving man, 
knight and fair lady, torch light shining upon tapestried walls, 
gives the visual setting for the dramatic audio-appeal of the 
story, and increases its imaginative stimulus. A well-planned 
illustrated introduction to the story also may be used as an 
eflFective way to lead into the narrative. 

It does not seem necessary to add that the story should be 
vivid and dramatic, that the action should move clearly and 
swiftly as the story-teller loses himself in the characters of the 
story who skillfully play their parts. 

PUPPETS. The story, again, is the core of the puppet show, 
in which the spoken word is of great importance, although 
the technique of the story-telling is difFerent. In puppet story- 
telling the voices which help in the various parts must be 


exaggerated to the same extent as the figure characters. 
Puppetry may be traced far back into the days of old. For 
centuries, and in many diiferent parts of the world, puppet 
shows have been given before appreciative audiences of old 
and young alike. We tend to think of such exhibitions as being 

Participation in a puppet show is an opportunity to combine art 
and drama. 


designed for the delectation of young folk, but in the Orient 
adult audiences sit for hours enthralled by the gestures and 
movements of skillfully manipulated figures. In Bali the 
shadow play occupies the place filled in occidental life by the 
motion picture; in China, shadow puppets made of donkey- 
skin parchment were first presented to entertain aristocratic 
ladies who could not leave their homes to attend the theater. 
Puppet shows were a popular form of entertainment in Asia 
and in Europe for many years. The Punch-and-Judy show is 
another type of puppet show which has long enjoyed favor, 
and today there is a revival of interest in this form of artistry. 

HAND PUPPETS. Today puppets and puppet-shows have 
a distinct contribution to make to audio-visual enrichment 
programs. The simple hand puppet, consisting of a head with 
a costume-body into which a child may thrust his hand is 
easily made by the pupil and particularly effective with classes 
of young children. The heads may be made of cloth, stockin- 
et, balsa wood or paper; the costumes may be simple lengths 
of cloth shirred to the head. These puppets are popular with 
children in pre-school and lower elementary school classes. 
Simple stories may be dramatized with puppets of this type, 
and lessons "acted out." One good practice is to make hand 
puppets of favorite characters from story books and then to 
enact the stories themselves. This procedure enables a child 
to visualize stories which have been told to him or which he 
is just learning to read. 


STRING PUPPETS. String puppets are more complex to 
make and operate, but they are effective visual media. They 
have a greater appeal for older children than do hand puppets, 
and some very fine puppets have been made in high school 
art classes. They may be mere simple figures, or they may 
be intricately carved and carefully costumed. The production 
of a puppet show, with string puppets, affords an opportunity 
to combine work done in art, English, and dramatics classes; 
it is also a splendid project for a dramatic club to undertake. 

Research and study are necessary in order to make repre- 
sentative figures, correctly costumed. Craftsmanship of a high 
order is essential to insure carefully molded or carved figures. 
Attention must be given to speech and diction by the students 
who are to act as "voices" of the puppets. The successful 
manipulation of the strings controlling the puppets requires 
coordination and timing— all of which afford good training for 
students participating in these programs. 

Recently a very effective puppet show dealing with dental 
hygiene has been given in many of the schools of New York 
City. Many lessons might well be dramatized and made more 
graphic if presented as puppet shows. There is no reason why 
the puppet characters and story script should not deal with 
actual social situations and personal problems encountered 
by children as well as with fictional stories. We have here a 
visual medium which has not been fully utilized by the schools, 
and which should be included to a greater extent as part of 
the audio-visual program. 


VI. ireasure irips 
Example oi Trip 

M O S T E F F E C T I V E of all the types of audio-visual enrich- 
ment is the "Treasure Trip", the school trip or journey. It 
has been highly approved from very early times. John Com- 
enius, "Father of Visual Education," w^hose Orbis Pictus 
of 1638 was the first illustrated book, commended it. The edu- 
cator, Jean Jacques Rousseau of the eighteenth century, advo- 
cated it in his "Education of Emile", and Johann Heinrich 
Pestalozzi, the Swiss educational reformer of the late 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, approved it. 

School trips or journeys were used in English education as 
long ago as 1905 and 1908. France and Belgium developed 
this type of visual aid before World War II more extensively 
than did the United States. Short and long trips were prac- 
tised, even inter-school visits, pupil exchanges, and youth 
hostels, which have also been encouraged here. 

Some still feel that all education should be in the school- 
room, and that community agencies such as museums, li- 
braries, historical sites, markets, botanical gardens, shipping 
departments, factories are not a vital part of education. Mod- 
ern educators, however, now realize the intrinsic value of this 
reality of experience, although the problems of sufficient time 
and heavy school schedules often prevent its effective use. 

An important objective in education is that our boys and 
girls know their immediate environment, its history, ideals 
and achievements reflected in places and monuments of 



artistic, historic, literary, civic, industrial, commercial, and 
recreational interest. That knowledge can best be acquired 
through direct experience, through Treasure Trips carefully 
planned and motivated; and carried out with purposeful and 
meaningful correlation with the curriculum. These provide 
firsthand, basic experience in the activities of the children's 
immediate world, their "world of reality". 

Of great significance to everyone is a trip to the United Nations' 
General Assembly. This is a model of the proposed permanent UN 
headquarters in New York City. 



Through this vital type of audio-visual enrichment more 
accurate information is gained and retained, more interest 
aroused than by any amount of verbal learning or, in most 
cases, by any other visual aid, although various types of audio- 
visual aids are invaluable in preparation for the trip. School 
becomes a part of life, learning a happy experience, as pupils 
and teachers work together in planning and carrying out this 
experience. The resulting discussions are equally important 
because of the pupils' active participation. The richness of 
individual experience in these "journeys" gives each child 
something to contribute. 

The school journey is the most real and the most concrete 
of the visual techniques and it is the most accessible and often 
the least expensive. It stimulates a desire for individual and 
group research, increases the power of observation, intensi- 
fies appreciation of original materials ("treasures") in their 
proper settings, and provides a clearer understanding of their 
relationships. This functional learning outside the walls of the 
schoolroom, this most concrete of all audio- visual enrichment, 
is especially helpful in the development of the units which 
children and teachers have chosen. These Treasure Trips are 
recognized as invaluable in education, whether they are group 
or individual, whether in or after school hours, when they are 
carefully and cooperatively planned and executed, creatively 
followed up, and critically evaluated. It would hardly seem 
necessary to suggest that the teacher become acquainted with 
the material, the goal of the trip, before the class visit. 



seums and libraries, historic sites, and monuments in most of 
our cities and towns where treasures have only potential value 
unless they are enjoyed. The word "Museum'' in the minds of 
adults even today too often connotes merely a storehouse of 
ancient objects divorced from life. That feehng is partly due 

Nature study at the zoo draws the undivided attention of city 






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to an attitude which has developed on the part of the pubUc, 
but is more often the responsibihty of museum officials who 
have considered their treasures alone, rather than the people 
to whom these treasures partly belong. To the youth of this 
generation, an art museum is not a storehouse of statues on 
pedestals, of pictures encased in deep and wide gilded frames 
so high on the walls that they cannot be seen, or of treasures 
arranged with little thought for the convenience and capacity 
of the beholder for personal enjoyment. It is a Treasure House 
full of light and color, of ancient and modern treasures ar- 
ranged with the spectator in mind and the purpose of reflect- 
ing the lives of those who created them. A museum of natural 
history simulates life itself in its habitat groups, models and 
dioramas with their natural settings and exactness of scale 
and color. Museums of science and industry appeal to the 
sense of touch as well as to those of seeing and hearing in their 
mechanical models which the visitor may manipulate. Most 
museums feel that children should be allowed and encouraged 
to enjoy their finest treasures. 

Botanical Gardens for nature study classes, the zoo for the 
younger children, airports, harbors, markets, city halls, civic 
centers, churches, factories, restaurants where food, music, and 
costume are like glimpses of other lands, offer Treasure Trips 
which will humanize and vitahze every area of the curriculum. 


Model in the Metropolitan Museum of Art ( New York ) of a castle 
banqueting-hall which vividly portrays a phase of life in the Mid- 
dle Ages. 

( This Treasure Trip is not suggested for any one age level, 
but should be adapted by the teacher for Elementary, Junior 
or Senior High School groups, to make use of the audio- visual 
materials in the specific community in which the school is 
located. ) 

As an example, consider a trip in New York City back to the 
days of Knights and Pages, Castles, and Cathedrals. Other 
cities and towns would have other Treasure Trips for the en- 
richment of chosen areas in the curriculum. In outlying dis- 


tricts where such Trails as this are impossible, "Imaginary 
Treasure Trips" may be taken through the help of audio-visual 
aids which may be procured from various sources.* 

Before the trip, discussion in class has integrated social 
studies, language arts, art, and arts and crafts. It has vitalized 
those areas by pupil and teacher research and by carefully 
selected and arranged stereopticon or kodachrome slides of 
castles, cathedrals, lords and ladies in medieval costume, 
knights in armor active in jousts and tournaments. Some chil- 
dren will have brought from home pictures of knights in 
armor, of castles with drawbridge and moat, of hunting and 
hawking parties, of banquets in castle halls. The teacher will 
have acquainted herself with the museum treasures, either 
by herself or under the guidance of the museum instructor. 

Then the trip itself which, through careful planning, has 
the eager attention of the group, and minimum fatigue, since 
too many treasures have not been included for the one visit. 
Boys and girls of today are transported back into those colorful 
days of the Middle Ages. In the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art they see knights in chain and plate armor made by artist- 
armorers who combined utility and beauty. How vivid the 
glimpse given of a castle banqueting-hall by a lighted model 
which shows dais, jester, serving man, page, lord and lady, 
even the fire upon the castle floor reflected upon the tapestries 
which decorate the walls! A model of a cathedral, a com- 
munity work erected to the worship of God by builders, sculp- 

* See Chapter XVI. 



tors and craftsmen who gave of their very best for its perfec- 
tion, takes added meaning when compared with New York's 
great Cathedral of Saint John the Divine * with its glorious, 
colorful windows, its towers, and sculptured doorways. A trip 
there is promised for next time! 

As a climax, a visit to the Cloisters is planned— a Treasure 
Trip for another day not too far distant so that the continuity 
will not be broken. There, each religious figure, the loving 
work of a medieval sculptor, stands in its niche alone, that it 
may make its religious and artistic message felt more deeply. 
There tapestries tell their stories and delight the eye in pat- 
tern and color, their gold-covered threads sparkling as they 
did when they decorated castle halls; as the Httle make-be- 
heve tapestries seemed to do in the model of the castle hall. 
Statues, colorful windows, tapestries, the echoing cloisters 
some seven hundred years old, and a beautiful old garden- 
all re-create that long-ago period and give it meaning. There 
is definite multi-sensory appeal through the eyes, through the 
touch— for although fingers may not actually rest upon stone 
drapery, flesh or gold-covered tapestry threads, the appeal to 
the touch is there. And there is appeal to the ears in the echo of 
steps on the stone floors, in the very silence of those cloistered 
halls. The rush and roar of the modern city are silenced, and 
the contemplative quiet of the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies pervades the senses. 

* St. John's Cathedral-New York City, Amsterdam Avenue, at 112th Street, 
or any cathedral or church patterned after medieval church architecture. 



DISCUSSION. Following each trip another discussion in- 
cludes each member of the group— eager contributions given 
spontaneously, comparisons of medieval life with that of today, 
or armored knights with our modern knights of land, sea and 
air. Free creative work follows in individual and group re- 
search, in writing, building, painting, modeling, weaving, 
slide-making— all inspired by the Treasure Trail. 

At the Cloisters (New York) a guide aids a group to appreciate 
fully the wealth of treasures to be found there. 


vii.Xnree-Dimensional Aids 
and Realia 



ITISTOBE regretted that to many people engaged in edu- 
cational work the mention of visual or audio-visual aids 
immediately calls to mind the motion picture. The motion 
picture is an extremely important aid to teaching and one 
which helps to vitalize much of the subject matter taught in 
all schools. But we do need to bring into use in the classrooms 
of this country more three-dimensional teaching aids, more 
realia and models and materials which give a more lasting 
impression than an image flashed across a screen. 

THE DIORAMA. The diorama (already defined on page 
26) is one of the most helpful of visual aids when it is de- 
sirable or essential to create an illusion of reality. By means of 
this small group it becomes possible to set up in the classroom, 
scenes of life in the far comers of the earth, re-creations of 
scenes from the past and representations of life or countries 
which might otherwise be hard to describe and picture. 

To date no statistical studies have been made to evaluate 
the effectiveness of the diorama. However, there is, and al- 
ways has been, a universal appeal in the miniature which stirs 
imaginations and lends reality to these groups. Children ac- 
cept a diorama with little questioning, and recognize that it 
is a representation of reality rather than reality itself. 

Dioramas may or may not be lighted by means of an elec- 
tric bulb set into the top of the case. One advantage in adding 



illumination to the diorama is that it then becomes possible 
for the scene portrayed to be shown in a room darkened for 
motion picture or slide projection. Attention may be called to 
the diorama from time to time to keep in mind the group or 
country which is being shown in the film or slide. 

The use of animation in a diorama is not desirable. Motion 
or animation of any kind tends to make the group seem like a 
toy contraption or gadget and detracts from the illusion of 
reality. If the aim is to teach mechanical processes it would 
be better to examine an actual machine or a model. 

The diorama, first developed in the museums of the United 
States about 1912, was introduced into the schools as part of 
the circulating collections of materials provided by the mu- 
seums. Today teachers and pupils are making dioramas as 
class projects, and finding them practical and valuable. 

The diorama as developed by the museums, and used and 
made by teachers and students, usually consists of an oblong, 
box-like case with a curved background and a foreground on 
which are placed modeled figures and accessories. They are 
placed in front of the background in a forced perspective 
which makes them appear to merge into the background as 
real objects merge into a background of sky and scenery. 
This combination of curved background and forced perspec- 
tive is what creates the illusion of reality. 

Flat, cardboard boxes with cut-out figures set in grooves 
are not dioramas. They are cardboard cut-outs. If used as such, 
they may have value at times, but it should be remembered 


that few things in this world are absolutely flat. Because it is 
three-dimensional, a true diorama gives depth and body to a 
scene which flat pictorial materials fail to do. 

The diorama used alone, however, is not the perfect teach- 
ing aid. If specimens of clothing, household utensils, jewelry, 
and ceramics are grouped around it, the visual appeal is 
heightened. Then, through added use of motion pictures, 
slides, maps, and photographs, the subjects will assume reality 
in the minds of students. 

MINIATURE STAGE-SETS. Among the "forerunners" 
of the diorama were miniature stage-sets, dish gardens, models 
of houses, gardens and temples. These are also of value as 
visual aids for use in classrooms. Stage-sets have long been 
used in Enghsh, literature, and dramatics classes. It might be 
well if they were used more frequently in social studies, lan- 
guage, and art classes. Historical episodes can be made to take 
on reality if acted out by small figures moved about on a 
miniature stage. Community organizations, groups, and gov- 
ernmental agencies can be set up on these same small stage- 
sets and made to move about as though meeting in regular 

The sand-box provides an opportunity for early training in 
the use of maps. Whole communities and areas can be marked 
out and set up. The sand-box is particularly good when the 
class is one of younger children. However, the training of 
young men in our armed forces taught us that sand-boxes and 



models have value with older students, too. It is possible to 
use this material to illustrate any type of lesson where dia- 
grams and plans are part of the work. It is easy to show how a 
town is planned, streets laid out, and roadways located if a 
sand-box is used. 

For more elaborate plans and models, the table-top scene is 

A miniature stage-set, complete with characters, is here used as a 
clever advertisement for the "live" show to be presented later. 



always useful. In this instance, a village, a scene, a group of 
people, can be laid out on the top of a table, desk or case. A 
group may first be set up on a base of cardboard so that it is 
possible to move it from place to place. No background is 
provided in this instance, and the group is actually a model. 

RELICS. In addition to the table-top model, we may include 
models or representations of everything from locomotives to 
washing machines. If the original is something which moves, it 
is preferable to make the model move in the same way. Unless 
this is so, the model is only a toy or ornament and has little 
value as a teaching aid. A good flat picture serves to show 
what an object looks like, but a model should show how an 
object moves and is used. 

Dolls, particularly those in the costumes of the different 
peoples of the world, help to familiarize children with the 
style of dress and physical appearance of people other than 
themselves. It is well to bear in mind that as dolls and modeled 
figures of human beings increase in size, they become less life- 
like. Dolls over eighteen inches in height often seem very 
artificial and do not have as great an appeal for children as 
smaller ones. The costumes and clothing should be as true as 
possible to the actual clothing worn by people whom they 

Dolls may either be dressed by the children of a class or 
they may be those purchased from commercial sources or 







' ^ 







^■■l^k>.^^^B^^-^ JP^ '^^ 



^^^^H Guatematn ^^@H| 

Dolls and relics can be displayed in classroom or hall showcases. 

acquired in the course of travels to foreign countries. While 
the costumes made by children may not be as perfect as those 
made by professional doll-makers, there are many lessons to 
be learned from planning and making such clothing. Research 
is necessary to verify types of clothing worn, and skill in sew- 
ing is necessary to put the garments together. In secondary 
schools students of art and fashion design carry out projects 
of this nature. Flat prints, slides and motion pictures may all 
be studied first before such a project is undertaken. 

It is difiicult and seldom necessary to bring actual furni- 
ture into a classroom. Size and space do not warrant the use of 
large pieces of furniture, but scale or miniature models may 
be used to serve the same purpose. Unless the class is one in 
home-making, and actual furnished rooms are provided for 
the students, models of furniture serve to familiarize the 


Such an exhibit stimulates student interest in other peoples. 

students with period styles. 

Relics, whether they be Indian arrowheads or grand- 
mother's wedding-shoes, always have an appeal for children. 
The actual handling of material from another age and people 
provides a learning experience hard to duplicate. It is the old 
story of firsthand evidence being the most important. Wher- 
ever possible, an attempt should be made to gather as many 
relics or artifacts as are available. An appeal to parents and 
adults will often reveal unsuspected sources of supply of 
these materials. If the specimens are irreplaceable, they can 
be arranged in a cabinet as a special exhibit, but an attempt 
should always be made to secure some articles which may be 
passed around and handled. As a teaching aid, an arrowhead 
which may be touched and felt is twice as valuable as one 
which must be kept behind glass. 



study nature is to go on a field trip. But even where this is 
possible, it is desirable to have mounted specimens for de- 
tailed study in the classroom. Mounted specimens of birds, 
animals, reptiles, insects, rocks, may be purchased from sup- 
ply houses or borrowed from museums. In addition, students 
should be encouraged to gather and prepare their own collec- 
tions. With classes in the elementary schools this usually 
means bringing together miscellaneous objects and mounting 
them on squares of heavy cardboard for safekeeping. 

In the case of students in the secondary schools today the 
process may be quite an elaborate and technical one. It is no 
novelty for a student to skin, prepare and mount birds and 
animals, dry and pin-mount butterflies and insects, and set 
up a demonstration illustrating a biological principle. This 
practice should be encouraged, for here the study involved in 
preparing the visual aid is of more value than the aid itself. 
We need specimens for purposes of identification but the 
student also needs to know something about the skeletal struc- 
ture of these same specimens. This knowledge is not gained 
through mere visual observation. Opportunities must also be 
provided for analytical study of what constitutes the specimen. 

LIVE ANIMALS AND PLANTS. No student, whether 
of elementary school or secondary school level, can be ex- 
pected to appreciate and understand natural objects, plants 


and animals, unless some provision is made for him to have 
actual contact with these objects. 

In the pre-school and lower grade levels living things and 
plants give the child a concept of growth, of life, of color, and 
of beauty in his own immediate world. 

In the higher grades these same living, growing things be- 

In the primary grades, living things and plants give the child a 
concept of growth, of life, of color, and of beauty in his own imme- 
diate world. 


come important for still another reason. They provide a means 
for arousing an interest in nature study that may carry over 
into adult life. This is especially valuable in the case of city 
schools. Here students often have little or no opportunity for 
field study of plants and animals in their native habitats. The 
specimens exhibited in terrariums and aquariums should be 
well cared for and maintained. Students should be taught 
early that regular feeding and care of living specimens is abso- 
lutely essential. They must also be instructed in the proper 
care of plants. 

If it is deemed wise to maintain a nature room, with live 
animals such as squirrels, mice, rabbits, raccoons, and grow- 
ing plants, experienced advice should be sought as to the best 
means of maintaining this type of material. A nature room, 
where all the students in a school may come to observe the 
specimens and become familiar with natural objects, is always 
a popular place. Such a room should be considered an im- 
portant part of the audio-visual program of a school. 

MULTI-SENSORY APPEAL. The materials described in 
this chapter appeal as "multi-sensory" aids. Their value lies 
not alone in the visual attraction, but in the many different 
ways by which they can be used to arouse student interest. 

In any class there is always a group with whom the visual 
appeal will serve as the best method of teaching a subject. An- 
other group can better be reached through the sense of hear- 
ing, and still others need to feel and handle materials. Some 


will gain an understanding by simply reading their textbooks. 
The classroom is thus a miniature world, made up of dif- 
ferent types of child-people. Teachers need to remember this 
in selecting materials for classroom use. Whatever the abili- 
ties or intellectual levels of the students with whom they are 
dealing, there is some aid which, properly used, will make the 
subject under consideration richer and more real. The best aid 
to use at any particular time is, therefore, the one which gives 
to the lesson the greatest degree of reality. 


VIII. 1 lome-anc 

1 School-Made 


MANY OF THE MOST valuable and effective teaching 
aids are those which have been made either by the teachers 
themselves, by the students, or by teachers and students work- 
ing together after formal classroom time. 

HOBBIES AND CLUBS. We have long been familiar with 
language, dramatic and social clubs as part of the extra- 
curricular school program. Today there is increasing evidence 
of the popularity of clubs devoted to the production of radio 
programs, the making of models, the collecting of various ob- 
jects, the production of motion pictures, and craftwork. These 
clubs may be made the sources for the production of many of 
the things used in the classrooms as teaching aids. Individual 
students or groups of students with kindred interests should 
be encouraged to develop hobbies. Radio clubs, camera clubs, 
stamp clubs, nature clubs, all have a definite value as part of 
the extra-curricular activities which ought to be provided 
in the school program. 

The greatest value to be derived from these club or hobby 
groups is the interest aroused in doing things. Once this 
interest is aroused, it becomes easy to set a boy or girl to work 
on a craft project or other activity. If the nature of the club 
activity is such that the work must be done by the group as 
a whole, then valuable lessons may be learned in how to work 
together. If the work is to be done by individuals, then each 



child may either be encouraged to work on something similar 
to what his fellow club members are doing, or may carry out 
some specific piece of work which is uniquely his own. 

In either instance, manual skills are acquired, social ameni- 
ties learned and observed, and the available supply of school 
materials increased. Even though the objects thus made 
eventually become the property of their student makers, their 
owners will proudly acquiesce when asked to lend them for 
school exhibits, special demonstrations or lessons. Following 
are some suggestions of audio- visual aids which may either be 
made or collected at home, or in the classroom itself, by indi- 
vidual students or by school club groups. 

STAMPS, SOUVENIRS, RELICS, These materials are 
already made, but must be collected and brought together in 
some order before they take on value as teaching aids. The 
collecting of stamps is a hobby which has given satisfaction 
to many, old and young alike. In order to be of value as teach- 
ing aids, the collections of stamps should be arranged or 
grouped according to rather clearly defined subject areas. For 
instance, "map stamps" or "famous historical character stamps" 
or similar groupings are good ways of arranging collections. 
If a geographical grouping is desired, then perhaps all the 
stamps of a particular country may be brought together, and 
a study made to locate the places and buildings shown on the 

Collections of souvenirs and relics may be grouped in much 


the same way as stamps. All the different items that are 
gathered on visits to various places of interest in the com- 
munity often form the nucleus for a school museum collection. 
Relics that have been unearthed by seekers for historical in- 
formation about a community may well be added to this col- 
lection. People in the community are often glad to contribute 
relics and artifacts of early pioneer days if they are informed 
of how much these mean to groups of students interested in 
local history. 

SCRAPBOOKS. The making of scrapbooks should not be 
allowed to become mere busy work. Neither should the scrap- 
books themselves be collections of unrelated items. An entire 
class may participate in the making of a scrapbook, or each 
member of a class may make one. If a class is working on some 
specific unit, a scrapbook may be kept to show how the unit 
was planned and carried out. In this way it is possible to have 
a complete story, with pictures of the various units of work 
done during the term. 

Scrapbooks may contain newspaper clippings, photographs, 
drawings by children, letters, essays, lists of sources con- 
tacted for materials, samples of fabrics, catalogs, timetables, 
maps, in fact, any collection of items that will help to present 
and tell a story. The layout and preparation of a scrapbook 
offers a good opportunity for a study of bookmaking, printing 
and illustration. 


first seem strange to classify lantern slides and photographs 
together. However, when we are thinking of teaching aids that 
may be made in the classroom, much the same thing may be 
said of both of these aids. 

Both the standard 3^4 x 4 inch and the small 2x2 inch 
lantern slides may be made by pupils. Let us consider first 
the standard slide. This may be made in almost every class 
from the first grade through the twelfth grade high school. It 
is possible to purchase excellent kits of materials to use in 
making lantern slides. These kits provide the teacher with 
everything from glass, crayons, and paints to the binding tape 
and labels. 

The actual painting and coloring of the lantern slide offers 
an opportunity to develop artistic skills. Research and plan- 
ning are also needed in order to know what to include in the 
slide picture. An excellent classroom project is the making of 
a set of lantern slides to illustrate the topic under considera- 

The 2x2 inch slides and photographs have much in com- 
mon, for both necessitate the use of a camera. This is no 
reason to refrain from making them for school use, however, 
for the modern boy or girl is quite likely to be an ardent 
amateur photographer. Camera clubs are to be found in a 
majority of the high schools of the United States, and exhibits 
of the work done by their student members give proof of the 
excellent standards maintained. In many instances the work 


exhibited is equal to that of adult and professional camera 

If it is possible to establish and equip a darkroom on the 
school premises, the entire photographic process from snap- 
ping the picture to developing the negative and making en- 
largements may be carried out either by a class or by camera 
club members. 

In the case of the 2x2 inch natural color lantern slides^ 
the film used is a special film which is sent to the manufacturer 
for developing and processing. It is good practice to encourage 
the taking of these pictures, however, for the students learn 
to handle film, time exposures, observe color and lighting 
effects. A good project to undertake is the making of a set of 
colored 2x2 slides of the school life, the student body, and 
the programs carried out as a part of the average school day. 
Other good projects include pictures taken while on nature 
walks, and scenes of community landmarks. 

SCHOOL ''MOVIES". In many junior and senior high 
schools today there is often a school "motion picture squad" 
on the scene making motion pictures whenever an event of 
importance takes place. Such squads may also be seen filming 
stories especially written and prepared to enrich particular 
subjects such as science experiments, demonstrations of cook- 
ing, hat-making, or interior decoration. 

There, should be supervision and guidance by some faculty 
member in these film-making activities. The making of a 



school movie involves many phases from the planning of the 
story, script- writing and casting, to the actual filming of the 
scenes. If there is no faculty member with the requisite experi- 
ence to guide this work, an eflFort should be made to secure 
the assistance of a parent or resident of the community. This 
type of activity is best suited to the junior or senior high school 

The English Department or the Drama Club may be called 
upon to help with the writing of the script. The Art Depart- 
ment is always a source of help for scenery and costumes. The 
Manual Arts Department should be asked to help in the mak- 
ing of props and equipment. Many groups and clubs may 
assist in the making of the film, but there should always be a 
coordinating or supervisory committee whose duty it is to 
follow the entire project through from beginning to end. 
Committee members must see to it that the actors are on hand 
when needed, that the script is followed, and that necessary 
materials are provided. 

The finished film may seem slightly amateurish to some, but 
there is always a keener interest on the part of students in a 
school-made film than in a professional one. Lessons are 
learned in its making which might not otherwise be learned— 
what makes a good picture, what to include in a scene to tell 
a story, how to translate factual information into visual pres- 

It is also interesting to note that after some experience in 
making motion pictures, students become more critical in their 


observation of professional films. They look for and detect de- 
tails which previously went unnoticed. They become more 
critical of films shown in commercial theaters and begin to 
build up for themselves standards by which to judge all types 
of films. 

This radio station at Brooklyn ( New York ) Technical High School 
provides a sound basis for future careers. 



RECORDINGS AND RADIO. In this modern age of 
sound it is often desirable to have recordings of speeches, 
sound effects, or musical scores to accompany school-made 
motion pictures. It is possible to secure for school use, not only 
phonographic machines on which records may be played, but 
also machines for the making or cutting of these records. This 
material is not too expensive and students may be trained to 
"cut" recordings of orchestral numbers and speeches. 

Students should also be encouraged to make and service 
radio sets for school use. Here again are examples of teach- 
ing materials which may be made during the formal class 
period or as a club undertaking. Work of this type provides 
training which has a distinct vocational and professional value 
for students. 

If a good basic sound system is installed in a school build- 
ing, it can then be the duty of students to operate and direct 
programs using this system. Extra equipment, microphones 
and turntables, can be prepared and set up by students under 
the direction of the teacher in charge of the radio club. 

Many of the radio operators and signal corps men of our 
army and navy gained their first experience with radio equip- 
ment while still in school when they set up an amateur receiv- 
ing set for the school or for a boys' club. New improvements 
are constantly being made in this field and the materials avail- 
able for school use have been greatly simplified. The nature of 
the work done makes it especially appropriate for junior and 
senior high school classes. 


DIORAMAS. The making of a diorama is not a difficult 
undertaking. Manual and artistic skills are drawn upon; re- 
search is necessary to decide what should be put in the 
diorama; and craftsmanship determines how it is made and 
put together. The actual diorama may be a simple scene 
illustrating some story studied in class or showing life in some 
country studied. As the children become more adept in han- 
dling materials, or with older classes, the diorama made may 
be more elaborate and finished. 

High school students, during their art classes, can make dioramas 
for use in other courses. Craftsmanship in construction contributes 
to eflFectiveness and reality. 



Many teachers who felt that they had httle or no artistic 
ability have been surprised at the good dioramas they were 
able to produce when they really tried. For some years now 
the American Museum of Natural History has conducted a 
training course in the techniques of diorama-making. Teach- 
ers who reahzed the visual appeal of this aid have learned to 
make artistic and worth-while dioramas. They, in turn, have 
passed this knowledge on to the children in their classes. 

A diorama made with curved, cardboard background and 
simple, modeled figures may be made at little expense. The 
illusion of reality produced by these groups make them ex- 
tremely valuable. Therefore, a true diorama should be con- 
structed and not merely a box with cut-out figures. It is highly 
important in making groups of this type to observe this rule. 

Whether the entire class cooperates in the making of one 
diorama, or whether several dioramas are made by small 
groups of children depends upon two factors: first, the amount 
of time which can be devoted to the construction of the 
diorama, and second, how many dioramas are really needed 
for any one class project. One diorama, well-planned and care- 
fully constructed is better than a number of hastily put to- 
gether, flimsy groups. 

MODELED FIGURES. It seems almost superfluous today 
to stress the value of creative learning, of making things. 
Puppets and modeled and sculptured figures are a part of the 
heritage which has come down to us through the ages. Chil- 


dren, especially in the elementary grades, love puppet shows. 
There is an appeal to these figures which are made to move by 
strings and sticks that is hard to explain. 

Hand puppets are easily made and may be little else than 
glove-like cloth figures which are slipped over the hand and 
manipulated by moving the fingers. These are readily fabri- 
cated by children in the very low grades. 

A miniature group by a master modeler, Dwight Franklin. De- 
picted below is the purchase of Manhattan Island. 



Carved puppets require more skill in the making and are 
better suited to older children and to members of dramatic 
clubs. Many beautiful balsa wood puppets have been made 
by students for high school dramatic-club performances. This 
teaching aid should never be classified as wholly belonging 
in the elementary school. 

Children of every age love to carve and model figures, 
whether the medium used is modeling clay, plasticene, wood 
or soap. Work of this type provides an outlet for individual 
artistic expression and should be encouraged. Pupils should 
be taken to see famous statues, the work of world-renowned 
artists in art museums. They should also be taken to see the 
beautifully mounted specimens of taxidermic art in the natural 
history museums. Exhibits of pupil- work provide an incentive 
for greater eflForts in this field and should occur frequently. 

SAND-BOX SCENES, MURALS. Creative activities 
should include the making of many types of objects. In some 
instances it is wise to make sand drawings, flat table-top 
scenes and simple murals before attempting to make carved 
figures of the type already mentioned. All of these types of 
creative work, however, have their place in the list of class- 
room activities. 

It is possible for groups of children to cooperate in the 
making of the aids under immediate consideration. This is one 
advantage to keep in mind when planning the program of 
work. Many hands may help to make the murals for a school- 


room wall or for an assembly program, such as a pageant. 
Again it should be remembered that the making of these 
materials is of value only when it contributes to the process 
of learning— the acquiring of skills, factual information, ap- 
preciation of arts and crafts, or when it is used as a means of 
getting a child to express himself. Visual aids of this type 
should not be made simply to fill in time or as busy work. 

Truck farming on a sand table-top is as absorbing and instructive 
as the real thing. 



AQUARIUMS, TERRARIUMS. For many years Ellen 
Eddy Shaw of the Brooklyn Botanic Gardens worked to show 
children how to grow and care for plants. Her methods and 
ideas have been carried out by many others. We have come to 
realize how important it is for children, especially children 
who live in large cities, to learn how to grow and work with 
living things. Pots of growing plants on the window sill of a 
classroom not only provide a bit of color, but they also provide 
an opportunity to show how things grow, how they develop. 
The same may be said for all types of nature study materials. 
A thorough foundation should be laid in elementary schools. 

Will this grow in our school garden? A trip to the public botanical 
gardens will increase interest in the classroom terrarium. 



ip^i m 




Aquariums and terrariums should be made, stocked, and 
cared for by the pupils themselves under teacher supervision. 
Actual firsthand contact with materials of this nature give the 
child a greater appreciation of nature study and all that it 
includes. Textbooks, stories, pictures or charts are not ade- 
quate to give the child the appreciation which comes through 
contact with living, growing plants and animals. 

The field trip to woods and fields, parks, botanical and 
zoological gardens and similar places is, of course, an ideal 
way to show living, growing specimens to children. But they 
should also have as much of this material as possible where 
they may watch, observe, and care for it themselves while 
studying about it. They should be encouraged to plant seeds, 
to collect and identify leaves, fruits, flowers, and to stock 
aquariums. In other words, materials of instruction should 
include those objects which surround us and which we should 
learn to know in order to be able to see this world in its 


. Enrichment oi Social Studies 

THE MORE VIVID and human we can make history and 
geography, the more vital those areas become in the cur- 
riculum. Word pictures of historical events and personages, 
however excellent such descriptions may be, often lack the 
desired concreteness of experience. Pictures, stereopticon and 
kodachrome slides, filmstrips, stereographs, dioramas, dra- 
matics on the stage, over the air and on the screen, stimulate 
interest in the word pictures and make them real, human, and 

If an objective of education is to develop the personality of 
the individual and fit him to live successfully and happily with 
other people in the world, making his definite contribution to 
society, surely social studies, enriched by well-selected and 
related audio-visual aids, are vital tools in accomplishing that 
objective. This area in the curriculum has to do with the social 
life, the thoughts, deeds, hopes and ideals of people. It deals 
with the social and economic problems of the past which con- 
tribute to the understanding of the conditions of the present. 
Through pertinent audio-visual material, boys and girls are 
challenged to discuss and interpret the significant factors in 
the life of yesterday and today. 

School experiences and life experiences will be so closely 
related that they will be as one, reflecting the ever-changing 
physical and economic-social environment, and its influence 
upon attitude and action. There will be a more sympa- 
thetic understanding of the relationship of one human being 



to another, of one nation to another. An example of this is 
the official classroom radio project of the National Education 
Association which has been helpful in bringing about Pan- 
American Unity through dramatic presentations. In addition 
to these are the programs which have come from the "Work- 
shops" and "Theaters of the Air," vital in giving children 
greater interest in and better understanding of the world in 
which they live. 

Through these aids there will develop a broadening of in- 
terests and human understanding, a realization of the inter- 
relationship of the various areas in the curriculum as con- 
tributing factors toward international information which will 
help bring about world brotherhood. Soon television and films 
will be combined in telecasts which will add their potency of 
combined visual and auditory appeal. History and geography, 
vital with the personalities which humanize it, will become 
more alive with color and drama. 

BETTER MAP TEACHING. The map has long been used 
by teachers of the social studies to give pupils a picture of this 
world in which, and on which, human beings live and work as 
social entities. Maps are pictures of this world— their prime 
purpose is to give a picture of nations and places. As pictures 
they are visual aids which should be so used that pupils are 
made aware of the fact that the social studies deal, not only 
with man and his tools and way of living, but also with the 


physical environment in which man works out his pattern of 

There are many different types of maps, poHtical, physical, 
population, rainfall, pictorial. There are maps which are crea- 
tions of artistic skill and craftsmanship, and others which are 
mere combinations of lines and dots. There is a map to illus- 
trate almost every item that might conceivably be dealt with 
in the social studies. Teachers should endeavor to have as 
many different types of maps available for use as they can 
secure. These maps, used as aids in visualizing this world in 
which we live, will help pupils to understand world condi- 
tions, and will thus help to vitalize the social studies lesson. 

PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS. Painters and sculptors 
have done much to make social studies vivid, to enable the 
seeing experience, not only to illustrate, but to vitalize the 
word pictures of history. Painters of history, past and present, 
often tell their stories more convincingly than writers of 
history do. What written account of an historical personage 
can convey to us his personality and character as swiftly and 
convincingly as a portrait of that person which brings out the 
inner quaHties of mind and spirit as well as the physical ap- 

Gilbert Stuart's portraits of George Washington, for ex- 
ample, are what most of us visualize when we think of our 
first great leader. Mark Twain announced that if George 




Washington should come back to earth and not resemble 
Gilbert Stuart's portraits of him, he would be denounced as an 
impostor! An artist who pictures an historical event has the ad- 
vantage of being able to present the entire episode at the same 
time, whereas the historian must unfold it, page by page. 

Those painters and sculptors who not only tell a story truth- 
fully and dramatically, but with all the beauty of their vivid 
language, best make history live. Thus, the seeing experience 
not merely illustrates but vitalizes the word pictures. 

With this in mind, teachers who select visual aids to enrich 
the social studies, whether they choose originals, slides, photo- 
graphs, book illustrations, will soon distinguish between those 
artists of historical scenes who are interested only in telling the 
story, in commemorating patriotic events and personages as 
historical records, and those who contribute beauty to what 
they have to say. Let words make our historical records as such, 
and paintings and sculpture supplement them as vitally and 
beautifully as possible, for art is a cross-section of history. 

tion pictures, authoritative studies have proved their eflFective- 
ness in arousing greater interest and understanding of causes, 
results and relationships, and of human relations. Most would 

Stuart's portrait of Washington is a well-known example of effec- 
tive visual presentation of the personality and character of an his- 
torical personage. 



agree that radio is playing an important role in interpreting, 
humanizing and vitalizing social studies, in bringing to the 
boys and girls the world of many peoples and events. With 
television, the usefulness of radio as an audio-visual aid in 
curriculum enrichment will be greatly increased, reaching as 
it does such a vast audience in homes and schools. 

TREASURE TRIPS. Actual school journeys or Treasure 
Trips, and imaginary ones if the real trip is impossible, to 
period rooms with their furniture, costimies, arts and crafts, 
make history especially meaningful and bring to life the people 
who made that history. For in considering the history of any 
country and period, the social life and creative expression of 
the people play an important part in presenting human experi- 
ences. Concrete images take the place of indefinite ones, and 
stimulate a better understanding of environment. 

A child may read about an old fireplace and see a book 
illustration of it, but he will not gain the feeling of reality 
which comes from standing in front of a big, three-dimensional 
fireplace in a real room with its heavy-beamed, low ceiling, a 
room which actually came from a Pilgrim home. The brass 
warming-pan reflecting on its polished surface each passing 
light, the Betty-lamp, pewter dishes, desk-boxes which held 
the Pilgrim Bibles, andirons, colorful cushions, combine utility 
and beauty and reveal much of the early American way of 
living. Any boy or girl can people these rooms with Pilgrim 


men, women and children in their simple homespun costumes, 
living frugally on a new, untried shore. 

How quickly and vividly such a visit stimulates observa- 
tion and thought, as the young discoverers follow clues, solve 
problems and find treasures! The actual treasures, realia, vital- 
ize history and geography, humanize and socialize them. In 
connection with these trips, stereopticon and kodachrome 
slides carefullv selected and related add to the vividness of 
the experience. 

The Colonial rooms in the American Wing of the Metro- 

A realistic miniature group by Dwight Franklin brings to life the 
history-book presentation of Washington's first inauguration. 



politan Museum of Art transport boys and girls who are study- 
ing that period in history, to the actual time of George Wash- 
ington and other patriots. The ballroom from a tavern in 
Virginia where they danced as fiddlers in the balcony played 
the slow and stately music of the minuet, re-creates that scene. 
A stereopticon slide or photograph of Howard Pyle's simple 
but dramatic drawing of General Washington leading his old 
mother through the doorway of the ballroom as Colonial and 
French oflBcers and their ladies bow respectfully may be very 
eflFective. Slides, photographs and color prints of portraits of 
Washington by early American painters will also help pro- 
duce the vividness of the experience. 

The mahogany furniture of that period, inspired by the 
famous furniture-makers of the mother country, shows the 
change from the straight lines of the sturdy Pilgrim furniture 
to the curved lines, more beautiful wood, more decoration, 
greater grace and delicacy of the following century. Paul 
Revere silverware, simple^ beautiful in form, proportion, light 
and shadow, and sparing of ornament, speaks well for the 
craftsmen's art in combining utility and beauty. Through this 
reality of experience the people of Colonial days step from 
the pages of the history book, alive and human, and take their 
places in their own environment. 

In districts where there are no museums or historical houses 
with their period rooms, there should be period furniture and 
costumes in some of the homes. With pupil and parent help, 
Pilgrim, Colonial and Nineteenth century settings may be 


laid in the school library or classroom, and become effective 
as the background for an original play or plays in which his- 
torical characters "come to life". 

Audio-visual aids— book illustrations, photographs, slides, 
filmstrips, dioramas, and films— are indispensable. Schools 
which have no projectors for slides, filmstrips, or films, will 
be able to borrow photographs, book illustrations and color 
plates from the geographic and travel magazines in the 
nearest library to supplement textbook and supplementary 
reading illustrations. Schools with projectors will be able to 
procure slides or films, or a combination, from educational 
sources ( See chapter XVI ) . 

"National understanding" will take on real meaning when, 
through audio-visual aids, children of our cities become ac- 
quainted with western cattle ranches and wheat farms, with 
mining districts and southern cottonfields; when children of 
farming, cattle and mining regions know more about life in 
Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, San Francisco. 

By means of this audio- visual enrichment, social studies pre- 
sent to children a study of life, an understanding of the social 
and economic problems which contribute to conditions of the 
past and the present. Through these audio-visual aids social 
studies foster a keener realization of the relation of one human 
being to another, of one nation to another. 


EDUCATORS REALIZE more than ever before that the 
vigorous method of teaching social studies through audio- 
visual materials is needed in training for democracy, and for 
an understanding of the interdependence of all peoples. 

These aids may emphasize and interpret the common cul- 
tural languages among all nations— painting, sculpture, archi- 
tecture, arts and crafts, music, the dance, and dramatics. Arts 
and crafts throughout the ages reveal the application of art 
to practical life and help interpret human desires and needs. 
They are the very essence of the people who produce them. 
When they are presented in their proper settings through 
audio-visual materials, they give a better understanding of 
the influence of environment. 

The story of furniture, for example, is an important part of 
the history of the manners and customs of different peoples. 
Delicate lace, rich enamels, embroidery, pottery, glassware- 
all are arts widely spread throughout the whole human race 
revealing the social and economic life, the culture of the coun- 
tries from which they come, the creative "heart" expression 
of the people through the craftsmen who combine utility and 

In the same way music, the dance, and dramatics have 
grown up with the people of every land, express the feelings 
of their creators and arouse like emotions in the hearts of those 
who hear and see them. These common cultural languages 
demonstrate the similar interests, desires and goals of all peo- 



pies, the realization that we are all human beings belonging 
to one world, hoping for a lasting peace through world cul- 
ture, justice, tolerance, the Brotherhood of Man. 

Educators all over the world understand this and are mak- 
ing a plea for world culture. A realization through vital, 
human, sensory learning of the cultural heritage and creative 
contributions of the nations of the world will help boys and 
girls interpret and satisfy human desires and needs. More than 
that, it will help shape conduct. Pride in the achievements of 
the past will be fostered, intercultural understanding stimu- 
lated, and creative responses encouraged in thought and 

Would not programs like the following, enriched by talks, 
stories, slides— both in black and white and in color— films, 
color-prints, and dioramas, help bring about this realization 
of world culture? 


The common language of art increases understanding between 
races and nations. Here an Indian craftsman enthralls a young 
audience with ceremonial sand designs. 



HANDICRAFTS. Illustrated by slides, many of them in color, 
and a film, Voices in the Air, showing the closeness of nations 

2. DANCES OF MANY LANDS. Story of the dancc, illustrated 
by slides from world masterpieces and film. On With the 
Dance, showing dances of various countries. Dance demon- 
strations by the pupils. 



3. STORIES OF GREAT BUILDERS. Stoiy of architecture, illus- 
trated by slides. Film, Historic Cities of India, stressing the 
Taj Mahal. Discussion by the pupils. 

4. FAMOUS BUILDINGS OF THE WORLD bascd ou program of 
previous week. Identification and discussion of slides by the 
pupils. Film, Churches and Cathedrals. 

5. HANDICRAFT STORIES illustrated by slides and examples 
of weaving, enamel, jewelry, etc., brought in by the pupils. 

6. MUSIC AND MUSIC STORIES. Victrola records in story fol- 
lowed by film. An Optical Poem ( in color ) , showing the close 
correlation of color and music. 

7. HIGHWAY OF FRIENDSHIP. Story of the Inter-American 
Highway, illustrated by sHdes, film and diorama. 

8. CRAFTSMEN OF MEXICO. Story, kodachromc film, dio- 
rama, realia. 

9. LIVING THE PICTURES. Slidcs, black and white and color, 
of world paintings, sculptures, etc. Impromptu tableaux by 
the pupils and quick sketches from memory. 

10. HOW TO PAINT THE CHINESE WAY. Story, slidcs, dio- 
rama, and kodachrome film. Discussion by the pupils and the 
teacher of likenesses and differences of paintings of the East 
and West. Poems by children, inspired by pictures. 



11. EARLY AMERICAN GLASS. The story of "Baron" Stiegel, 
illustrated by slides and followed by two films : The Baron and 
The Rose and Recording Modern Sciences, comparing the old 
and the new. 

12. A CITY OF MANY NATIONS. Slides of Old New York and 
New York of Today. Recognition and discussion by the pupils, 
followed by film, Up and Down New York. 

13. LIBERTY IN AMERICA. Story of Washington, Jcffcrson 
and Monroe. Slides of the three leaders and their beautiful 
homes. Film, in color, of their homes. Discussion of the 
"Birth of our Democracy and Hopes for the Future." 

14. COLOR PRINTS AND THEIR STORIES. Exhibition of paint- 
ings by artists of many lands, followed by choice and discus- 
sion by the pupils. 

15. MAPS OF MANY KINDS— OLD AND NEW. Film, Airplane 
CJianges Our World Map. Exhibition of maps. Discussion of 
"Our Changing World." 

16. ART IS MANY-SIDED. Talk with slidcs: ivories, enamels, 
furniture, costume, ironwork, etc. Discussion by the pupils. 

17. ORIGINAL WORK BY CHILDREN. Talk by the pupils, fol- 
lowed by slides of painting, sculpture, arts and crafts. 


Slides and film. How to Make an Etching. 



commercial posters. Place of commercial art in world of today. 
Discussion by children, followed by posters made by the 

ISTS. Talk, illustrated by sHdes and followed by film. Nature 

In each program,* planned to cover one week, the seven-to- 
eleven-year-old groups reached. There are discussions and 
creative contributions by the pupils and integration with the 
work in the classrooms, f 

International workshops or exhibits in our schools correlate 
with and vitaHze the audio- visual programs which present and 
interpret the cultural contributions of nations. "Treasures" no 
matter how small, which boys and girls of different nationali- 

* Slides and color prints from The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The 
American Museum of Natural History. Films and dioramas from the latter 
Museum and films from The International Theatrical and Television Co., Inc. 
and The Harmon Foundation. Similar slides, films and prints may be procured 
from educational and commercial centers in various parts of the country. See 
Chapter XVI-"Where to Obtain Help." 

f These Audio- Visual Enrichment Programs, and their integration with the 
Educational Department of the College, were sponsored by Dr. Florence 
Brumbaugh, Principal of the Hunter College Elementary School, Professor 
Philip R. V. Curoe, Chairman of the College Department of Education, and 
Dr. Frank T. W^ilson, Coordinator. The programs for 1946, Fall, and 1947, 
Spring, continued "World Understanding" through visits to many countries 
of the world. They were sponsored by the acting Principal, Mary M. Burgess, 
and were conducted by Anna Curtis Chandler, Chairman of Audio- Visual 



ties bring from home, stimulate pride in the artistic achieve- 
ments of all the nations, east and west, lead to a better inter- 
cultural understanding and encourage their own aesthetic 
responses and desires to create in poems, songs, crayon, 
chalk, paint, clay and dioramas. Emphasis upon our cultural 
education, the common cultural languages, through these 
audio-visual aids which eliminate time and space, is a sure 
foundation for world understanding, for universal brother- 

Real understanding of other peoples is obtained only when 
we gain some knowledge of how they live, what they eat, what 
they wear, what they do and what they are thinking about. 
When you see things from neighboring countries and meet 
people whose heritage is just a Httle different from your own, 
you soon begin to notice similarities between their ways and 
yours. Progi'ams for world understanding should strive to em- 
phasize similarities, instead of continually stressing differences 
between peoples of the world. 


The artistic skill of ancient Aztec sculptors is depicted in this Tem- 
ple of Quetzalcoatl, Mexican deity of culture and civilization. 

In 1945 and 1946, at the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, as part of the program for schools visiting the museum, 
there w^as a series of special "Weeks." These weeks w^ere de- 
voted to programs designed to bring a picture of the life of 
different peoples of the w^orld to pupils in the New^ York City 
schools. There vv^as a "Mexican Week" in February, 1945; a 
"South American Week" in April, 1945; and an "Oriental 
Week" in October, 1945. In each program, emphasis was 
placed on the clothing, food, arts and crafts of the people of 


the area. As far as possible, living models took part in the pro- 
gram. Classes, visiting the museum for these programs, were 
made to feel that they were seeing the costumes and foods and 
craft- work of people who were friends and neighbors. The fol- 
lowing are brief descriptions of the programs as carriisd out 
at the museum. Programs of this type might well be adapted 
and carried out as part of a term project by one class, or by an 
entire school. 


FOOD. A demonstration by a Mexican woman of the way to 
make tortillas. Exhibit of stone metate for grinding of corn, 
bags of Mexican corn meal, tropical fruits and vegetables. 
(This demonstration might be given by students in home 
economics. ) 

CLOTHING. Museum staff members, dressed in native Mexi- 
can costumes, presided at the various exhibits. 

ARTS AND CRAFTS. A muscum Staff member, in Mexican cos- 
tume, engaged in actual work on silver bowls and jewelry. 
Exhibit of typical jade and silver jewelry from Taxco and 
Mexico City. Students from a class in pottery-making at New 
York University's division of industrial and vocational arts 
demonstrated how to use a potter's wheel. Specimens of pot- 
tery from Tlaquepaque, Oaxaca and Puebla were displayed. 
( These demonstrations might be given by students in the arts 
and crafts, vocational and manual training classes. ) 



MUSIC AND DANCE. A Mcxican boy and girl dressed in the 
colonial costumes of the particular dances, performed the ja- 
rabe and the jarango, dances dear to the hearts of all Mexicans. 

MOTION PICTURES. All studcnts visiting the museum for this 
special program saw the films "Arts and Crafts of Old Mexico," 
"Treasure Trove of Jade" and "Sky Dancers of Papantla." 

PLANETARIUM. As part of the program all students went to 
the Hayden Planetarium where they were shown the stars they 
might expect to see if they lived in Mexico. (This part of the 
program might be carried out by means of star charts, lantern 
slides and pictorial demonstrations on the blackboard or with 
diagrams. ) 

FOOD. A demonstration of the way Bolivians cook kinoa, the 
native cereal grain of that country. Exhibit of native fruits and 
vegetables obtainable in the local market. 

CLOTHING. Pupils from two elementary schools donned native 
costumes from Guatemala and presented a "living" fashion 
show for all the visiting children. The experience of wearing 
costumes from another country gave their wearers an appreci- 
ation for the styles and materials worn by a group of people 
hitherto little known to them. 

ARTS AND CRAFTS. Across from this fashion show a group of 
silent fi*gures kept watch. Departing slightly from the all "hv- 


ing" exhibits, the museum borrowed from one of New York's 
large department stores a group which had formed a window 
display. The scene depicted a Peruvian market, with manni- 
kins, in native costumes, gathered together in the market place 
as the natives do in that country. The costumes were brought 
back by Carolyn Schnurer, a New York designer, from a trip 
to South America during a search for inspiration for new de- 

Peruvians in native costumes participate in a colorful traditional 



signs in dresses and sportswear. Many a youthful student from 
the city's art classes stood before this group and made sketch 
after sketch adapting the odd-looking jackets and blouses to 
the tastes of modem young Miss America. 

films depicting life in South America, including one program 
of Julien Bryan's splendid films on Bolivia and Uruguay, the 
visit to South America concluded with a program of Bolivian 
dances by a native Bolivian. 


FOOD. A young Chinese woman member of the museum's edu- 
cational staff demonstrated how to prepare a typical Chinese 
dish of vegetables and pork and rice. 

CLOTHING AND HOMES. An exhibit of sketches by two well- 
known artists showed the life and peoples of the Philippines, 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Japan. Students were able to visu- 
alize clearly the different types of homes in that section of the 
world and the way people live and dress. 

ARTS AND CRAFTS. A demonstration in the use of the potter's 
wheel. Exhibit of Chinese pottery. The highlight of this pro- 
gram was the exhibit of Chinese, Balinese and Javanese pup- 
pets and a puppet show. Behind a shadow screen, like those 
set up in the towns of Java and Bali, danced beautifully carved 
shadow puppets so dear to these peoples. Princes and prin- 


cesses, dragons, fighting cocks, heroes and villains all moved 
across the screen to the great delight of eagerly watching 
young New Yorkers. (Pupils might well make their own pup- 
pets for a demonstration of this type. ) 

MOTION PICTURES. "Charm and Costume" depicted cos- 
tumes of China, and excerpts from films dealt with life in the 
various islands of the Pacific. 

All three programs were staged for a period of a week in 
the foyer hall of the museum which accommodated large 
groups of children at one time. Exhibits, similar to those de- 
scribed, might be set up in cases in school corridors or in the 
school library. Other parts of the programs such as dances or 
puppet-shows might be given in classrooms or in the audi- 
torium. The cooking demonstrations might be given either in 
the special home economics room or as part of an assembly 
program. The important point to keep in mind is that a pro- 
gram of this type, concentrating on the life and culture of 
some neighbor in another part of the world, brings that neigh- 
bor closer to the pupils of your class. 


XI. Enrichment oi Lan^ua^e Arts 
Example ol Program 



T- ,'^' 









«s*» ? 





LITERATURE, AN IMPORTANT part of the curricu- 
lum area of language arts, is humanized and vitalized by 
audio-visual enrichment. In literature, as in social studies, 
there is no place today for a school program in which the main 
aims and objectives are techniques, skills and the mere storing 
away of facts. Consideration is given, instead, to the student's 
immediate personal enjoyment and to the lasting enrichment 
of his life. There must be a combination of the student's appre- 
ciation of the best in literature, the functional application of 
techniques and skills, a combination of the dynamic experi- 
ences of active life with the intellectual activities which for- 
merly were of the first concern. 

Today the classroom is a workshop, enabling boys and girls 
to gain intimate knowledge through personal, active partici- 
pation in varied, everyday, related experiences— both direct 
and indirect. These develop in the student the power of adjust- 
ment necessary to meet the ever-changing life-experiences of 
today, and the power of self-guidance, self -learning, which is 
the goal of all learning. This is vital for successful living, espe- 
cially in these days of swiftly changing social, economic and 
industrial patterns. 

Again, there is no place today for a program of language arts 
which is concerned wholly with a "mass of facts," and a 
"dissection" of isolated masterpieces. Literature, like social 
studies, is a human document which should be freely, infor- 



mally, and happily discussed, enjoyed, and related to individ- 
ual and group experiences in the school and outside. Through 
audio-visual enrichment, the student is given varied and 
meaningful experiences and adventures in hearing, seeing and 
feeling in fields of human activity and accomplishment. He 
relives past experiences and enjoys new ones through the sym- 
pathetic sharing of the experiences of characters in the stories 
made vivid and real through audio-visual aids. 

This emphasis upon individual needs and choices, this per- 
sonal enjoyment, does not mean that the backgrounds of prose 
and poetry should be neglected. It does mean, however, that 
they should be "introductory" to the enjoyment of the literary 
selection itself. Often such backgrounds are quite necessary to 
an understanding and appreciation of the literature they intro- 
duce, and the seeing and hearing aids play an important role 
in their presentation. 

Audio-visual enrichment of the Language Arts program 
stimulates the imagination and quickens the emotions through 
a deeper appreciation of stories and their characters, and a 
keener understanding of dramatic episodes which the students 
"live" vicariously. The student's own experiences are broad- 
ened through these seeing and hearing experiences, and there 
is a sympathetic sharing of the many experiences presented 
through this audio-visual appeal. Book illustrations have long 
been effective in accomplishing this, and photographs, slides, 
filmstrips, radio and films are more so. There is a better inte- 
gration of the student's own personality by orienting him to 


different life situations through vivid audio-visual portrayal. 
Thus there is fostered in the student a greater power to think, 
to feel, and to accomplish. 

Personalities are brought to life through this enrichment, 
and life-situations are vitalized. A better understanding of 
story or play, its setting and the personages in it, all of which 
without these aids may be quite outside the student's imme- 
diate environment, produces a far greater feeling of concrete- 
ness and reality. These concrete aids also help boys and girls 
compare and judge related experiences, and receive new ones. 

THE RADIO. Through the radio which may be found in 
most homes and schools, many share the experiences which are 
so vividly portrayed. The imagination of the listener creates 
pictures in keeping with the audio appeal. There is, also, a 
strong appeal to the emotions. The dramatized story is vital- 
ized, the characters take on form and personality, as the lis- 
tener identifies himself with one of them and with the action 
of the plot. The dramatizations in the educational programs of 
our broadcasting companies should be planned to increase 
the interest of boys and girls in leisure time reading. Television 
will greatly increase this interest. Broadcasts of the School of 
the Air, for example, are planned to supplement classroom 
work by bringing to the class important world events, people, 
and excellent dramatic and musical talent. Thus they enlarge 
the horizons of boys and girls and encourage them in volun- 
tary reading. 



The modern medium of television aids in bringing to life famous 
persons in history and literature. 



ture is as effective in making literary personages live as it is in 
bringing to life famous persons in history. Many times the 
motion picture is the most potent of all the audio-visual aids 
in bringing this about, when the story is not distorted as it 
sometimes is for box-office appeal. The dramatization of 
literary subjects is valuable because of continuity in vivid 
unfolding of plot, convincingly human characters, examples 
of voice and diction, and enrichment of vocabulary. Drama- 
tizations of some of the stories recommended in the school 
curriculum are available in the 16 mm. films. The fee for their 
use is prohibitive for many smaller schools but parent commit- 
tees are often organized to take care of that problem. Some 
of the films deal with stories by Shakespeare, Dickens, Kip- 
ling, Longfellow, Mark Twain and Washington Irving. 

There are other situations when the combination of the 
motion picture with carefully selected stereopticon or koda- 
chrome slides, followed by a Treasure Trip, is what the teacher 
feels is required to make story, book, or play yield to boys and 
girls its full meaning. The teacher must decide which form of 
audio-visual material, or which combination, is most effective. 
Personal selection is important, for only the teacher who 
is familiar with the material to be presented, and the educa- 
tional aims to be accomplished, can effectively select which 
aids shall be used. 


A Shakespearean drama unfolds on an Elizabethan stage. 


This program has an introduction to be illustrated with 
stereopticon slides which may be borrowed from the school 
service lending collections of museums, from collections made 
by the boards of education of various cities and towns, and 
from libraries in state and city institutions. They may be rented 
from educational and commercial companies. 

If slides are not available, and the school has an opaque pro- 
jector, book illustrations, photographs, and postcards illustra- 


tive of the period and story may be used most effectively. 

If neither sHde * nor opaque projector is available, an ex- 
hibition of mounted photographs and postcards, made avail- 
able to classrooms before the program, will be helpful. 

These illustrations make the introduction vivid, with the 
combination of visual and auditory appeal, and often that of 
touch when the illustrations seem to be three-dimensional. 

The story should be told rather than read, when possible, 
and presented vividly in costume if a suitable costume can be 
procured. The parts should be portrayed with human and 
dramatic appeal. 

Any possible Treasure Trip to see models, paintings, armor, 
tapestries of that period, doubles the effectiveness of the 



Architecture, English, Renaissance. London before the 
Great Fire— Old London Bridge Model ( London Museum ) 

The sixteenth century. Queen Elizabeth's century, was one 
of greatness. In some ways, it was the most significant in 
English history, and has influenced the world. It marked the 
change from the Middle Ages to the modern world. Compe- 
tition entered work and the individual stepped from the 
crowd. England was supreme. Queen Elizabeth's brave Sea 

* The stereopticon slides listed here are from the Lending Collections, Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. 



Kings had most effectively "singed King Philip's beard." King 
Philip of Spain found that he could no longer boast that he 
was Master of the Seas. Queen Elizabeth's Sea Kings— Sir 
Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir John Hawkins, had 
made her Queen of the Seas. The great Spanish Armada, which 
King Philip had boasted was invincible, was conquered. Eng- 
land ruled supreme on both land and sea. 


Frints, Engravings, Zundt. Portrait of Sir Francis Drake 
( London, British Museum ) 


Frints, Engravings, Leu. Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh 
(London, British Museum) 


Frints, Engravings, Fine, J. S. Spanish Armada 

It was an age of great men, not only brave sailors, soldiers, 
and gallant courtiers, but fine writers, poets, actors, and artists. 


Architecture, English, Renaissance. Fenshurst Castle 

Mingled with the points of gables and the perpendicular 
lines of tall chimneys reminiscent of the Middle Ages, were 


Manners and Customs, Domestic, English, XVI Century. 
Elizabethan Staircase 


the square-headed windows and doorways of the new style in 
architecture. Classic designs, borrowed from the Greeks and 
the Romans, were introduced into the wood-carving. Slender 
columns and patterned capitals, scroll and leaf designs which 
had come in with the new style from Italy, the Renaissance, 
were in use. There was a riot of carving done with exquisite 

Moreton Old Hall— a surviving example of English Renaissance 

'■' ,_J5!^'«<i'igS8«5i 





The great hall, formerly with a roof of its own, was incor- 
porated as a part of the house which was often shaped like the 
capital letter E in honor of Elizabeth, with many rooms built 
around two inner courts. 


Architecture, English, Renaissance. Pitchford Hall, Ex- 


Manners and Customs, Domestic, English, XVI Century. 
An Elizabethan Family in Front of Their House 

The windows, symmetrically arranged, made it difficult in 
the estimation of some of the folk of the time— Lord Bacon 
among them— to keep away from the drafts or the sun! Oriel 
windows were introduced, like bow windows, built out from 
the wall and resting on brackets. 


Architecture, English, Renaissance. Hardwick Hall, Inte- 
rior, Staircase 

Costumes reflected the changes in architecture, the pointed 
forms giving way to rounded, though some of the old pointed 
style was still used. The circular stone staircases changed to 
the beautifully carved wooden ones which were more accom- 
modating to the long, wide, stiff skirts, the ungainly farthin- 
gales! Bodices were stiff and pointed, embroidered with jewels. 



The ruffs, of Spanish origin, grew larger and stiffer, until 
finally large, fan-like collars developed. 


Painting, Geeraerts, M. Portrait of Elizabeth, Hardwick Hall 

The armor of the time followed the pointed doublet, and the 
engraved designs imitated the gold and silver braid which 
decorated the doublets. 


Arms— Armor, English, XVI Century Suit of Armor which 
belonged to Sir James Scudaniore, Gentleman, usher at the 
Court of Queen Elizabeth (New York City, Metropolitan 
Museum of Art ) 

The foremost man of the time was one William Shakespeare, 
the greatest writer of plays of that time and of all times. 


Painting, Burbage, Richard. Portrait of Shakespeare ( Lon- 
don, National Gallery ) 

In quaint and gentle Stratford-town, on the banks of the 
river Avon, young Will Shakespeare had a good background 
for the beauties of his later writing. 


Architecture, English, Renaissance. Stratford 

Through a garden of rich, purple flowers in the midst of cool 



Shakespeare's house in Stratford-on-Avon. Note the many small- 

paned windows. 



green, we may still enter Ann Hathaway's thatched cottage in 
Shottery, not far away. 


Ar chit e dure, English, Renaissance. Shottery, Ann Hatha- 
way s Cottage 

Shakespeare's two-storied house made of wooden beams, its 
roof thatched, its gables steep, its black beams on the outside 
checkering the walls into squares and triangles, dormer win- 
dows adding to its charm, is again an example of the mingling 
of the old and the new. 


Architecture, English, Renaissance. Henley Street, Shake- 
speare House 

But shall we not visit, first, a theater of this time? 


Dr awing, De Witt. Swan Theatre, 1593, Interior 

It is summer, and a bright flag is waving from the turret to 
announce that the play is about to begin at three o'clock in 
the afternoon. 


Architecture, English, Renaissance. Fortune Theatre, 

In a moment, three trumpet-blasts will proclaim that the 
performance is starting. So, let us hasten to enter the circular 



building, its roof the cloudless blue sky except for the stage, 
passages and galleries. In the summer theater, the pit, or yard, 
where many people are gathering, is always open to the sky. 

Everywhere there are gay colors, for the Londoners have 
come in holiday array, and are whiling away the time before 
the play begins by eating nuts and apples, and by drinking ale. 

In front of us is the stage, coming well out into the pit, 
and open between the columns at the sides so that the more 
favored spectators in the boxes may see all that is taking place. 
There is no curtain, no scenery. The playgoers of Queen Eliza- 
beth's time had much better imaginations than we have! 


Manners and Customs, Domestic, English. An Elizabethan 
**Plaie' House 

The name of the play is hung out on a placard, and the 
prologue appears, robed in black velvet. With many bows he 
tells what is going to take place, begging for the good will of 
the audience. Right before our eyes, the "properties," such as 
rocks, branches of trees, tables, chairs, are put in place, as one 
scene follows another without pause. 

The stage, with the aid of the vivid imaginations of the 
spectators, is the throne-room of a palace, dense woods, or the 
waves of the sea, the actors moving from one "scene" to an- 
other. The upper part of the stage in the rear is useful in bal- 
cony scenes such as in Romeo and Juliet. The actors, dressed 
in the costumes of their own day, even though they may be 


representing a far earlier time, enter through the curtains at 
the rear of the stage. All parts are played by men or boys. The 
placard has just been put up informing the audience that they 
are looking upon a forest. 

Now that we have had a glimpse of what is taking place, we 
will steal away, and return with members of the royal court, 
when Her Majesty appears! 


Painting, Geeraerts, M. Visit of Queen Elizabeth to Black- 
friars. ( Sherborne Castle ) 

" *Yo! Ho! And the Spanish Main,' 
Sang the salt sea waves of old. 
The Sea Kings bold for Queen and gold 
Ploughed our turbulent plain/ 
Yo! Ho! for good Queen Bess 
They braved the Spanish Main. 


Painting, Heere, Lucas de. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth. 
( New Haven, Yale University ) 

"The whip of the gale as it lashes the sail, 
In the storm as it rises again. 
Yo! Ho! These Sea Kings bold, 
Brave and daring and strong; 
With cutlasses long they righted the wrong— 
Yo! Ho! And the Spanish Main!" 



Thus sang a bronzed sailor, a broad felt hat set jauntily upon 
his rough black hair, big golden ear-rings gleaming in the 
afternoon's sun, and scarlet trousers reaching barely to his 
bronzed knees. 


Fainting, Millais. Boyhood of Walter Raleigh (London, 
National Gallery) 

"Up with you, now!*' he commanded the two lads who had 
been drinking in each word of his sea stories. "Shake the sand 
from your clothes, and we'll be on our way. 'Tis so long since 
I have walked on land, I have not my land legs' yet. Busy I 
have been with helping Captain Drake, Sir Francis as now he 
will be called since he has been knighted in return for his serv- 
ices by no other than Her Majesty, good Queen Bess. 'The 
Dragon' with his little ships swept down upon King Philip's 
castle-like galleons and drove them from our shores. Queen 


Painting, Lawrence. Kiiighting of Sir Walter Raleigh. (Lon- 
don, House of Parliament ) 

Bess now rules, the sovereign of the sea as well as of the land. 


Painting, Zuccaro, Attributed to. Portrait of Queen Eliza- 
beth. (London) 

And I, lads, am right glad I was in the thick of it, though I 
would have returned before this to Slough, a prettier village 


never was, had I not shipped again with Sir Francis. But now 
here I am, my pockets bulging with fine silks for thy mother, 
Master Ned, a necklace for young Prue, and a box of rare wood 
for our old grandam." ( Lights— As story continues ) 

There was great rejoicing that night in the little village of 
Slough at the return of one who had been gone from them so 

Queen Elizabeth and her courtiers live again in this impersonation 
developed by elementary school pupils after hearing a story of 
Queen Bess and the England of her time. 



long and who had helped to rid their land and its surrounding 
seas of the dreaded Spanish foe. Most of the villagers, old and 
young, gathered at the Royal Arms, where there was much 
rejoicing and merrymaking as he who had sailed with the 
famed hero, Francis Drake, told his adventures. 

Dick, Ned, and Prudence sat by themselves, apart, in a 
dusky corner which the candle-light of the old tavern but 
poorly lighted. But they could hear just as well, with their ears 
attuned to every adventure which had befallen "The Dragon's" 
ship, "The Golden Hind," and those who so bravely adven- 
tured in it. 

Dick and Prue were very proud of their brother. In their 
eyes he was just as great a hero as "The Dragon" himself, every 
bit. Ned was proud of him, too, but he was more proud of his 
father, an actor in the Queen's Players who performed their 
plays in the different villages and towns through which they 
passed. They hoped to receive the honor of playing in London 
before the Queen at Her Majesty's request. It was enough to 
make any boy proud, to have a father in that troupe. Ned was 
very glad they happened to be in Slough on the night when 
Dick's sailor brother came home. 

"I'd like to have been there when Jack Drake, page to the 
famous captain who now is not only Admiral of Her Majesty's 
fleet but her honored Knight, first caught sight of the Spanish 
Treasure Ship they were looking for! He won the golden chain 
promised by his master!" Thus spoke young Mistress Prue. 

"And I, when they sailed upon the vast unknown waters of 


the South Sea, or when they looked out upon both seas. Most 
of all rd like to have been there when they sailed around the 
world. What could be more wonderful, Ned, than to be the 
first Englishman to sail around this world on which we live?" 
breathed Dick rapturously. 

Ned nodded. Then he looked very earnest as he said rather 
low, for it was a strange thing to be saying on that night of all 
nights with Dick's sailor brother just returned from his adven- 
tures, "If I could have my choice, Dick, I would be a player 
like my Father, and act my plays before our Queen and her 
court. That's what I would do! And," here Ned hesitated a bit, 
for he was about to tell something which had been in his in- 
most heart for some time but which never before had he told 
even to his player-father, his greatest chum. 

"I would one day meet Master Will Shakespeare of Strat- 
ford who has won fame for himself in London Town by writ- 
ing verses and turning them into plays which bring him great 
praise from Her Majesty, our Queen. My father says he is the 
most talked-of man in London, and all words are to his praise. 
And my Father knows. He has seen this Will Shakespeare 
many a time, and once watched him play before the Queen. 
She dropped her glove near him while walking across the 
stage to her place of honor. He kept his part of king in the 
play, picked up her glove, and handed it to her with a bow 
which greatly pleased her. Such beautiful thoughts he puts 
into words, such as you never dreamed. Here are some of them, 
the talk of London Town, methinks. 



'How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank! 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music 
Creep in our ears; soft stillness and the night 
Become the touches of sweet harmony. 
Sit, Jessica. Look, how the floor of heaven 
Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold; 

Come, ho, and wake Diana with a hymn; 

And draw her home with music' " * 

" Tis beautiful," breathed Prue, starry-eyed. "I, too, would 
like to meet this writer-actor. Master Will Shakespeare. 
Wouldn't you, Dick?" 

Dick nodded, rather vague and bewildered. Fancy being 
able to say all those high sounding words! He admitted to him- 
self that they were beautiful, but in his opinion they would 
have been more beautiful if they had only been about the sea! 
"Yol Ho! And the Spanish Main!" his sailor brother had been 
singing. He could better understand those words. 

"Thus Sir Francis and the other brave Sea Kings proved 
there is a Queen of the seas as well as a King," the returned 
seaman was boasting, and that with right good cause. "Where 
now are the galleons of Spain? God save the fair and brave 
Elizabeth, our Queen, Mistress over land and sea!" 

All glasses were right quickly and loyally raised, and a rous- 
ing cheer filled the little tavern so completely given over to 

* From Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice." 



merrymaking. But before the sailor could go on with his tales 
which held spellbound his wide-eyed, eager listeners, a 
courtier clad in velvet cape and broad plumed hat, his ruflF 
lace-edged, thrust open the door. "In the Queen's name!" he 
cried. "What with all this merrymaking within there was no 
hearing my knocking without. Her Majesty is here! On journey 
to the castle of a lord not far distant, the wheel of her royal 
carriage was lost just outside of Slough. Make room for Her 

Such a commotion filled the little tavern of the Royal Arms! 
Such excitement shook the village of Slough! Torches sent 
forth their flares, brightening the quaint little streets bordered 
by gabled houses set in the midst of gardens blooming with 
purple flowers. Trumpets rent the stillness, as the royal pro- 
cession drew near. Courtiers in gold-embroidered velvet, fine 
pleated ruffs, wide plumed hats, gold-hilted swords by their 
sides, gave orders for the Queen's entertainment. One, a tall 
noble, drew a velvet cape more closely around the Queen as 
he rode by her side, carefully guiding her horse. Gaily he chat- 
tered with Her Majesty, whose blue eyes sparkled and whose 
auburn hair, jewel decorated, twinkled with changing lights as 
she peered this way and that. Truly, this adventure was much 
to her liking. 

" 'Tis Sir Water Raleigh!" exclaimed the excited Ned who 
had run to his father's side. "My father says so! He is the one 
they were telling of the other night. He is the hero I was tell- 
ing you of but the other day, my sweet Prue, the knight who 



SO gallantly served his Queen. Dost remember?" 

"Nay, and if I do, good lad, tell me once again ere they come 

inside, an' thou wilt/' 

"He, too, has always loved the sea, my good friend Prue," 

began Ned as they watched the gorgeous procession draw up 

at the tavern door. "Was not Master Walter, Sir Walter now. 

The versatile Elizabethan stage balcony was not limited in use to 
Romeo and Juliet. Frequently it was a stage in itself. 



a boy living close to the sea in Devon? He heard all the brave 
tales of Sir John Hawkins and Sir .Francis Drake who ad- 
ventured upon the strange seas, and longed to be with them. 
So he manned a ship to help defeat the dread Spanish foe. 
More than that he sent colonies to the New World across the 
great Western Ocean for his Queen. One of them is named 
Virginia in honor of Her Majesty, the Virgin Queen. By her 
own hand he was knighted even as thy brother's master, Sir 
Francis Drake of the 'Golden Hind'. And this is the way it 
came about. 

"One showery day, when clouds seemed full eager to chase 
the sun away, the Queen went walking from her palace. All 
her wise counsellors and courtiers, her gay and splendid court 
ladies, her cavaliers, followed her. Jewels gleamed from her 
red hair as they do on this night. Mayhap, my good Dick, some 
of these very jewels were in the Spanish ships your bold sea- 
man brother helped 'The Dragon to capture. No doubt her 
great collar of cobwebby lace rose high above her head as it 
does now. Jewels gleamed over almost every inch of her, even 
upon her little shoes as we can plainly see in the torch light. 

"A heavy shower had left a large muddy place directly in 
her path, though the sun, reappearing, had caused it to sparkle. 

" *My shoes will take ill to the mud,' laughed the Queen, so 
they tell the tale, and she held up her wide jewelled skirt, not 
liking to venture. 'And your pretty feet as well,' said a courtier 
with a deep bow, hoping, methinks, to receive favor from the 
Queen because of his gallant speech. But Master Raleigh, no 



dealer in pretty words without gallant deeds, sprang forward 
on the instant and spread his embroidered velvet cape over 
the muddy place before his Queen. 

" 'Well hast thou served thy Queen,' declared Her Majesty, 
much pleased as she tripped lightly across the velvet bridge, 
1 shall reward thy courtesy for thou art truly a gallant knight/ 

"Sir Walter she made him and she likes full well to keep him 
by her side, making him Captain of the Queen's Guard, Lord 
Lieutenant of Cornwall, and Vice Admiral of Devon! Not 
only is Sir Walter brave and bold, as brave as Sir Francis, but 
he has a ready wit and is a maker of pretty verses which help 
Her Majesty pass pleasantly many an hour. But look you, Dick 
and sweet Prue, such jealous glances rest upon him from the 
other courtiers. Methinks trouble will be brewing in the court 
for 'tis said that the head of the Queen's favorite is never long 
safe. But come, let us go again to our corner where we can 
see clearly what takes place, for Her Majesty is about to enter 
our tavern. Truly, Slough and the Royal Arms will long be 
remembered as the place where her Majesty, Queen Bess, 
stopped one night when the wheel from her royal carriage was 

It was a most wonderful evening. There was the sparkle of 
jewels, the flashing of swords in the torch and candle light, 
witty sayings and even hearty laughter for the Queen was in 
the best of humor over affairs both at home and abroad. Was 
she not the acknowledged mistress of the land and the sea? 
Had she not bold Sea Kings who had filled her coffers from the 


Spanish treasure ships and protected her from her arch enemy, 
King PhiHp of Spain? What other sovereign had a more bril- 
hant court, more loyal subjects? One toast followed another, 
and the tavern-master quite outdid himself in the matter of 
cooking. Savory odors filled the tavern room and brought a 
pang of hunger for a taste of the roasts and the pasties even 
to those who had supped before. 

Ned's cup of happiness was filled to overflowing. Her 
Majesty had called for the Queen's Players and blessed her 
good fortune that they were in Slough. She applauded the 
dancing, the music, the acting, the poem which Ned's father 
recited hailing her as Queen of the Seas and the Land. Bells 
jingled, pipes played, drums throbbed, feet twinkled, nymphs 
danced amidst the green, weaving garlands of flowers. When 
the Goddess of Beauty appeared and with most pleasing words 
handed her sceptre of beauty to Queen Bess, the applause 
could have been heard as far away as Maidenhead. 

Then it was that Her Majesty sent for the leader, the chief 
actor, Ned's father. Ned's heart was near to bursting with 
pride when he heard her say, "Thou dost please me well, 
sirrah, and I would have thee and thy company perform be- 
fore me in London. Nay, more, I would have thee meet Master 
Will Shakespeare, the best poet and play-writer in all Eng- 
land. Master Shakespeare is an actor as well, and mayhap it 
would please thee and thy company to see one of his new 
plays such as hold the court and their Queen spellbound. He 
is with the Lord Chamberlain's Company in London now, 



writing plays with his ready pen and acting in them, too. I 
will recommend thee to him for this company. Thou hast done 
so well, sirrah, that mayhap thou wilt one day be made 
'Master of the Revels' at court. There thy gift would have full 
play in preparing masques, plays, and pageants. Await on me 
in London a week hence." 

"To think on it!" exclaimed Prue, "thy dream has really 
come true. Thou wilt see Master Will Shakespeare. Pray re- 
member, Ned, all about the playhouse and the actors and the 
costumes that they wear. Dick and I will be watching for thy 
safe return, an' thou tell us not all about London Town it will 
go hard with thee, sirrah!" 

Dick was glad that his playfellow was to be so honored but 
he would have liked to go along, too. "Never you mind, my 
sweet duck, you shall go with me to London when next I go 
to meet my master on the 'Golden Hind'," comforted his 

Ned was all eyes and ears in London. Narrow streets packed 
close with wooden houses and shops displaying their beckon- 
ing wares, Saint Paul's towering majestic and dignified towards 
the sky, London Bridge supported by great arches, and a 
multitude of strange boats in the River Thames, all fascinated 

"Dick would like to be looking at them," thought Ned, a 
pang of homesickness shaking him even in the midst of such 
absorbing sights as the city offered. There were most wonder- 
ful big houses, so different from the little gabled cottages in 


Slough, some of them built in the shape of the letter E in honor 
of Elizabeth, the Queen, with ever so many square-topped 
windows one right underneath the other, all seeming to peer 
down at him. 

"Methinks it must be too warm in the hot sunshine within," 
muttered Ned, "and overly cold when the winter winds are 

The great event at last arrived, though it had seemed to the 
eager Ned as if it never would. They had actually entered 
the big circular theater on the bankside of the river. A con- 
fused mass of gay colors met Ned's eyes, and a medley of 
sound, laughter, talking, music, drummed upon his ears. 
Everyone was merry, out for a good time. From the pit of the 
house Ned looked up at the blue of the mid-afternoon sky, at 
the flag waving from the turret to tell all folk that there would 
be a performance that afternoon. He glanced at the stage. 
"The Venetian Comedy", he read from the placard. That 
sounded good. He was glad that there would be some laughter 
in it. That was why he liked his father's plays and pageants. 
There were few tears in them, and Ned thought, as did Prue 
and Dick, that laughter was far better than tears. 

Ned felt rather sorry for all the people standing in the pit 
of the house before the stage, as he took the seat offered him 
by his father's side in one of the boxes to the left of the stage. 
But they seemed to be having a right jolly time— chatting, 
drinking, and eating. He wouldn't mind a nut or two, himself. 
All around him in the boxes, to the right of the stage as well 



as the left, were such gorgeous ladies and splendid cavaliers 
that Ned was sure they were of the court. 

"Watch for Her Majesty/' whispered his father. "She will 
be here soon, lad. What think ye, my sweet Ned, she said to 
me this very day? That we may see the great Master Will 
Shakespeare after his play is through. 'Tis an honor, mind you, 
lad, that your father and you are receiving!" 

Ned pressed his father's hand and sat as close as he could 

Prologue and placard draw the attention of those in the pit to the 
presentation of a Shakespearean play. 



to his side. Mayhap one day his own actor-father would be 
upon that very stage, doing his part before the Queen. Aye, 
that was a thought to juggle with! 

Of a sudden there was a great commotion. "Surely the 
Queen is coming!" thought Ned. But 'twas only a pickpocket 
caught and tied to a post on the stage for all eyes to gaze at 
and for folk to pelt with apples if they were good marksmen. 

A sudden blare of trumpets and cries of "Her Majesty, 
Queen of Merry England!" proclaimed that she was being 
led to her seat of honor upon the platform, itself. Ned recog- 
nized some of the courtiers he had seen that night at the Royal 
Arms. There was one who had not been at the Queen's side 
then but who claimed royal attention now. He was good to 
look upon, his eyes bright and sparkling, his chin ending in 
the same little pointed beard that Sir Walter and Sir Francis 
and all the courtiers boasted. He seemed to be bubbling over 
with energy. A velvet cape hung well back upon his shoulders 
over his embroidered doublet, and a crisply pleated ruff 
framed his eager face. His plumed hat was held carelessly in 
one hand while with the other he called Her Majesty's atten- 
tion to certain things of interest upon the stage. 

The play progressed. Ned sat breathless in his chair, no 
longer in London Town but with the characters upon the 
stage, in the colorful city of Venice. 

Hark! There were the very words his father had taught him 
and he loved so well, words which had always made beautiful 
pictures as he heard his father say them. 



*How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank! 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music 
Creep in our ears; soft stillness and the night 
Become the touches of sweet harmony/ 

Now he was seeing enacted the very play of Master Shake- 
speare from which those words came! Ned was almost over- 
whelmed in his delight, so much so that he did not see his 
father rise and bow as some one approached him. Nor did he 
notice his father's delighted face or hear the whispered words, 
until he heard his own name spoken. 

"Master Ned," a kind strange voice was saying, "your father 
tells me you came here on purpose to see me. I am honored, 
sweet lad. Grow up with this same love of the stage with which 
your good father has endowed thee, and mayhap you will be 
acting in one of my plays before the Queen as your good father 
will soon be doing." 

Ned gasped. 'Twas the kind-faced courtier who had been 
seated by her Majesty. He had come to their box on purpose 
to speak to them. Truly Queen Bess was very kind to send 
him, for it must be Master Will Shakespeare, himself! Ned 
could only bow and look up at the great writer and actor with 
worshipful eyes. 

"One day you must come to Stratford, lad, and see my son 
Hammet of about your own age, and my sweet mouse, Judith. 
A good time I warrant you would all have in the fields on both 
sides of the river, all velvety green and blossoming with 


posies. On a May Day you shall come with your father when 
the Queen's Players will entertain us with dances and masques. 
Good Master Player, I shall see you and your sweet lad again 
for soon you will be with me in the Lord Chamberlain's Com- 
pany. Fare-you-well, now, good friends. Her Majesty is 

It seemed to Ned as if he could not wait to get back to 
Slough, happy as he had been in London Town. So much he 
had to tell. To think that his father was to receive a coat-of- 
arms and be able to have "Gentleman" put after his name! 
How he would talk of his meeting with Master Will Shake- 
speare! Dick and Prue would see him, too, and enjoy his plays 
when they moved to London Town. 


1. Enricnment oi tne Sciences 
Examples oi Programs 

IT IS MOST ESSENTIAL today that the sciences be 
made a Hving part of every school curriculum. World events, 
news items, current films, radio programs, all include an in- 
creasing number of references to work done in the field of 
science, and preparation for citizenship in the world demands 
a knowledge of basic scientific information. 

Even before World War II called upon the talents and 
skills of scientists to work for mankind in general, the increas- 
ing importance of science in our daily life had become ap- 
parent. Whereas the student of yesterday had little need to 
draw upon an understanding of chemistry, biology, physics, 
electronics or radio theory, the student of today accepts these 
subjects and makes them a part of his everyday life. It is desir- 
able that he do this, for the modern world is being built upon 
products conceived and developed in the laboratories. This 
subject area in the curriculum should very definitely be made 
real to students of all grades through utilization of audio- 
visual aids. 

Probably one reason that less emphasis was formerly placed 
upon the importance of the sciences in the elementary and 
high school curricula was due to the fact that these subjects 
were considered to be of value only for the student who 
contemplated a career as a chemist, a doctor, an engineer, or 
a professional research worker. 

Today, every child accepts radio as part of the equipment 


of living and wants to know the principles underlying the con- 
struction and operation of a radio set. The airplane is an ac- 
cepted means of modern transportation, and your school boy 
or girl wants to know what keeps a plane aloft and in flight. 
Plastic materials are everyday commodities, but the boy and 
girl of today wants to know how they are prepared and how 
they should be used. It is essential that the modern school 
child be equipped with sufiicient fundamental, basic, scien- 
tific information to understand this world in which he lives. 
This understanding must include a general knowledge of the 
sciences as well as of the social studies, arts, languages and 

Methods and techniques for the presentation of the science 
subjects need vitalizing. Too much emphasis has been placed 
on the learning of formulas and not enough emphasis placed on 
practical adaptations of these same formulas. The effective 
utilization of audio-visual teaching materials is necessary if 
laboratory experiments are to be interpreted in terms of human 
situations. The mathematical formulas which produce energy 
are of no value if the energy produced is not of use to man in 
his environment. 

Many of the audio- visual aids used in the classroom are the 
result of the application of modern scientific principles. There- 
fore, these same aids can be made of value in vitalizing a study 
of these same principles. A simple explanation of the princi- 
ples of optics and their relation to a motion picture projector 
will often prove valuable as a means of increasing appreciation 


of modern equipment. This same procedure may be applied to 
any of the various machines used in this work. An understand- 
ing and an appreciation of the role played by equipment should 
be one aim if these aids are to be made part of the school 

A lesson in physics will become real to the student who has 

Visual aids are very important in science studies. Here a high 
school biology student in Tomball, Texas, examines microbes with 
a microscope. 



seen a film depicting the processing of uranium; a lesson in 
modern chemistry will take on meaning to the student who has 
seen a film showing the role of plastics in the modern world; 
a chemical formula which has been a mere compilation of 
symbols and numbers may suddenly become clear to the visu- 
ally-minded student when he sees this same formula illustrated 
on a filmstrip; the processing of steel takes on new life and 
vigor to the student who has heard a recording of the sounds 
in a steel mill. Scientific experimentation and study have given 
us so many of the materials which we use in the classroom. We 
should give back to the study of these sciences the products 
which they have helped to create. 

Stories and accounts of the lives and works of world-famous 
scientists should be made a part of a study of any one of the 
sciences. The reading of the life of George Washington Carver 
or Marie Curie provides the student with information which 
enables him to form a mental picture of these persons and 
their places in the world of science. Then, if motion pictures, 
filmstrips, lantern slides or a combination of these aids, dealing 
with the same subjects and people, are shown to him, the vis- 
ual medium enables him to see the living personalities. He 
sees the people and events of the world of science as he has 
seen the people and events of history, literature and art. 

It is important that the work of individual scientists be made 
real to the child, in order that he gain an appreciation not only 
of these individuals but also of the part that he himself may 
take if he chooses to work in these same fields. 


The use of audio-visual aids in the teaching of the sciences 
will help to break down rigid subject barriers which have long 
existed. For instance, the motion picture just mentioned deal- 
ing with the life of Carver will show how he drew upon a 
knowledge of chemistry, biology, physics and other subjects. 
The film showing how modern plastic materials are made will 
illustrate how chemistry and physics are combined. Still an- 
other film dealing with the pasteurization of milk may be used 
to illustrate principles of biology, chemistry and scientific 
dairying. It is to be hoped that many films will soon be made 
to demonstrate how the factual information learned in the 
different sciences can all help to produce new materials, new 
products, new foods, new methods of agriculture. The factual 
content taught in one branch of the sciences is often the basis 
for further study in another science. The use of many types of 
audio- visual aids will help emphasize this connection. Teach- 
ers should try to select and use audio-visual aids which will 
bring out this point and at the same time clarify and vitalize 
the subject matter itself so that it takes on real value to the 

FILMSTRIPS. As has been pointed out in the preceding 
section, the motion picture can be made a very eflFective aid 
in the teaching of any of the sciences. The lantern slide and 
filmstrip should also be included among the aids used in teach- 
ing these same subjects. In the case of both the lantern slide 



and the filmstrip, the image or picture shown may be held on 
the screen for a longer period than is possible with the motion 
picture. This is a distinct advantage in science classes, where 
the pupil must learn recognition of objects, such as the parts 
of a flower, anatomical structure, or the parts of a dynamo or 
engine. Furthermore, the teacher herself controls the speed 
at which lantern slides or filmstrips are changed or moved. 
This adds to their value in these classes, for detailed study of 
figures and diagrams is necessary. 

Pupil-made motion pictures, lantern slides and filmstrips 
are especially valuable for use in science classes. Principles 
learned in chemistry and physics classes become of practical 
value in the making of these aids. Moreover, it is well for teach- 
ers to make up sets of slides showing diagrams, formulas, equa- 
tions and processes. These slides, shown on the screen while 
some experiment is in process, will help to keep before the 
pupils a picture of the principles underlying whatever experi- 
ment they are perfoiming. These principles might otherwise 
be temporarily forgotten in the thrill of performing an actual 

RADIO AND TELEVISION. Radio and television are 
both outstanding examples of how science has contributed to 
modern life. They may be effectively used in two ways in the 
school program. In the first instance, factual information con- 
cerning the construction and operation of both radio and tele- 
vision sets may constitute the subject matter of a lesson. In 


the second instance radio and television may be the media 
through which additional information on many subjects is 
brought to the children. It should be as much a part of the 
classroom procedure for science classes to listen to the broad- 
casting of scientific meetings and programs as for social studies 
classes to listen to political meetings. As television becomes 
more universally available, it may well be possible for science 
classes to observe demonstrations and become familiar with 
the techniques of famous scientists. 

The winner of the Soap Box Derby is televised for telecasting to 
youthful fans— thus increasing the interest of budding engineers. 


demonstration-experiment technique has long been consid- 
ered a regular feature in the teaching of the sciences. Such 
demonstrations, however, should not become mere routine. 
Science is bringing new materials, new foods, new drugs, new 
products into our lives. Examples of these contributions should 
be brought to class wherever possible (or lantern slides or 
films illustrating these new materials should be shown ) . Dio- 
ramas, flat prints, and any of the other audio-visual aids should 
be used in the science classes to stimulate interest in the sub- 
ject under immediate discussion. It is important to show the 
interdependence of the various sciences and the other subjects 
included in the school curriculum. We should use the same 
types of teaching aids that are used in the other classes, or we 
will continue to lean upon memorization and experimentation 
as the only methods to use in teaching the sciences. 

the treasure trip may be said to make objects and peoples 
come alive for the social studies, it is equally true that it does 
the same for the sciences. A trip to a glass-making factory, a 
foundry, a testing laboratory, will clothe an otherwise drab 
and routine science lesson with life and reality. The student 
who has watched the process of pasteurizing milk will have 
a clear picture of what actually takes place in a modern dairy. 
The sciences deal with concrete, definite subject material. 
Therefore, any teaching aid which helps to make a subject 


concrete and definite for the pupil should be utilized. When- 
ever possible science classes should be taken to museums, fac- 
tories, laboratories, and other places where they may observe 
actual scientific specimens and processes. 

impossible to lay down any rules or formulas for the most 
effective audio-visual aids to be used in teaching any of the 
sciences. Modern science is cooperating to make the modern 
world. Thus we can only repeat that the sensory teaching aid 
or combination of aids which best illustrates and vitalizes the 
subject under consideration is the best aid to use for that sub- 
ject. Science teachers should beware of establishing routine 
practices and procedures to illustrate basic principles. Basic 
principles are likely to be employed in new combinations— and 
the alert science teacher will use the aids which most clearly 
show these changes and adaptations. 


Examples of Programs 

Egbert, the mechanical man at the Frankhn Institute in Philadel- 
phia, greets feminine admirers. 

It has frequently been said that 4:he social studies benefited 
most from the use of audio-visual materials, and that most of 
the materials now available for classroom use were appropri- 
ate only for this subject area. It is true that this was the situa- 


tion until quite recently. But the current interest of youth of 
school age in radio, television, electronics, and the other sci- 
ences has made it necessary to provide materials which will 
be of value in teaching these subjects in the classroom. 

At the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia the staff has out- 
lined a number of programs, which although planned as radio 
programs, are particularly well suited for classroom use even 
when the radio section of the program is omitted. To para- 
phrase the report of the Director of Education at the Insti- 
tute,* the radio program was directed toward the elementary 
schools, adopting the theme "Science Is Fun." It was broadcast 
every Monday afternoon at 2:15 p.m. over Station WFIL for 
the purpose of dramatizing events of science and highlighting 
the offerings at the museum and planetarium. Egbert, the 
famous mechanical man, a feature of the Institute, was brought 
to life in the broadcasts and children took part in the program. 
A teachers' manual, containing synopses, suggested activities, 
vocabularies and booklists, was sent to every teacher of grades 
three to six in Philadelphia and the surrounding area. An eval- 
uation committee visited classrooms to watch pupil reactions 
to the progi'ams and to make suggestions to teachers. A similar 
series is now being prepared for the high school level. Films 
listed in the programs are available only to the schools of Phila- 

* The project was suggested by Miss Gertrude Golden, District Superintend- 
ent, Philadelphia Public Schools. It was carried out by a steering committee 
under the chairmanship of Armand Spitz, Director of Education, The Frank- 
lin Institute, with Miss Ruth Weir Miller, Radio Assistant, Philadelphia Public 
Schools, in charge of the project. 



delphia, but if other teachers desire to use them, information 
as to where to secure them may be obtained by writing to the 
Department of Education, The Frankhn Institute, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. Transcriptions of the programs were also 
made for use in Philadelphia schools, and it is to be hoped that 
these transcriptions will soon be available to schools in other 
parts of the country. 



THE STORY. Man first was limited in his knowledge of the 
world to that portion which he could see, but he soon began to 
travel away from home on foot in search of food and for other 
purposes. The developnient of methods of carrying himself, his 
family and his possessions marks the beginning of the science 
of transportation. The invention of the wheel was the first step 
which made possible a traveling civilization and brought 
about a sharing of the cultures of many parts of the world. 
Egbert will tell about the construction of the Pyramids with 
the moving of weights on rollers, and will trace the wheel up 
to the present time. 


Horseless buggy Pharaoh tomb Khufu pyramid 

( Fay-roh ) ( Koo-f oo ) 




Talk about all kinds of vehicles on wheels, past and present. 
Create a bulletin board display showing progress of transpor- 
tation on wheels. 

Let class contribute what they know about early use of wheels. 
( Indians, Chinese, etc. ) 
Study about Egypt and the Pyramids. 

Discuss modern use of "rollers'* to move heavy machinery, etc. 
Make a class scrapbook ( or individual ones ) showing progress 
of transportation. 
Reports on early cars, trains, carts, chariots, etc. 


1. How the roller lightened the labor for men. 

2. Why the building of the Pyramids was such slow work. 

3. What animals were used for early transportation. 

4. What kind of transportation poor people used. 

5. Why coaches were uncomfortable. 


QUESTION: What are some familiar uses of the wheel in addi- 
tion to moving vehicles? 

answer: Steering wheel, pulley, fishing reel, gears in clocks 
and motors. 


Build a miniature "sand table" pyramid under construction 
with blocks on rollers— partially built pyramids, etc. 



Experiment with round objects such as pencils, rolHng books 
over the desk, to show the difference between shding and 

Try dragging across the floor a box weighted with books. Then 
slip wheels or rollers under the box, and try again. 

let's READ 

Harter, Helen. How We Travel. Follett Publishing Co. Chi- 
cago, III. Pp. 31. Pictures particularly applicable to use of the 
w^heel in transportation. 

Petersham. Story of the Wheel. John C. Winston Co., Phila- 

let's see a moving picture 

Development of Transportation. 11 min. sound film. Shows the 
types of natural barriers which for ages compelled isolation of 
various peoples. Describes the contribution of the steam loco- 
motive, the gasoline engine, and the development of the rail- 
way systems in the United States. Depicts man's conquest of 
sea and air. 

Transportation, Part 1. 15 min. silent film. Shows the Egyptian 
sled and dog sled, early car, prairie schooner, stage coach, 
"Tom Thumb," "De Witt Clinton," modern steam locomotive, 
electric trains, roadbeds, tunnels and grades. 

Transportation, Part II. 15 min. silent film. Man as beast of 
burden, evolution of the wheel, use pf animals, early and later 


steam trains, subways, elevated, early automobile, New York 
street scenes, and air transportation. 

Transportation, The Story of. 12 min. silent film. Shows Indian 
drags, mule trains, stage coaches, horse-drawn cars, diagrams 
of principle of early steam engines, development of the cylin- 
der and sliding valve, wood-burning river boat, and the prin- 
ciple of the gas engine. 

The Rocket, an historical locomotive important in the early devel- 
opment of railroad transportation. 




THE STORY. This is the story of the greatest system of mass 
communication that has ever been devised. Egbert will tell in 
dramatic form some of the steps which carried communication 
from the point where it was necessary to have wires running 
from place to place, to a literal broadcasting of messages in all 
directions and without wires. The first experiments were called 
wireless telegraphy, and messages were sent by means of 
sparks. The invention of the vacuum tube made it possible to 
transmit and receive music and voice, and the new device 
came to be known as the wireless telephone or the radiophone 
—from which we get the word radio. 


If possible, obtain an old crystal set and ear phones. 

Bring in vacuum tubes from radio (may be discarded tubes, 

which will be satisfactory to show the different elements ) . 

Science or social studies textbook of vintage of 1915 explaining 

about "wireless" and another of 1925 telling about the birth of 


Modern "ads" for radio or television sets. 

VOCABULARY volumc rectification wave-length 

transmitter audio-frequency kilocycle aerial 

microphone radio-frequency selectivity ground 

amplifier modulation impulses vacuum tube 



How many different stations can you tune in on your radio set 

when the volume is lowest? 

How many can you tune in when the volume is highest? Do 

you have a tone control on your radio? Listen to a program and 

observe what difference this adjustment makes. How many 

tubes are in your radio? 

Have a "mock" broadcast in the classroom. 


How men first tried to send radio signals through space. 
How your voice is turned into "radio" waves and then back 
into "sound" waves again; or what happens between the micro- 
phone and the classroom. 

The steps in the development from "spark" signals to modern 
radio broadcasting. 


What is the scientific explanation of "560" on your dial? 
Report on different techniques used on the radio— e.g. drama, 
interview, monologues, quizzes, variety show, etc. 

Ask any student who has broadcast to report on his experi- 

Ask for reports of visits to studios. 

Arrange for a visit to WFIL to see a broadcast of "Science is 
Fun"; or a visit to WFIL to see studios and a sound effects 



Have students tell of their own experiments with sound effects. 
Organize a Radio Club if there is not one in the school. 


Peet, Creighton. All About Broadcasting. Alfred A. Knopf, 
N. Y., 1942. Pp. 67. Written for children. Well illustrated. 
Floherty, John J. On the Air. The Junior Literary Guild and 
Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1937. Pp. 99. Another well illus- 
trated book on the subject. 

A school Radio Club practices for a broadcast. Students appearing 
on a radio program gain a deeper appreciation of this- vital means 
of communication. 




Network Broadcasting. 12 min. sound film. Shows how modern 
network radio programs are sent over the air and the part tele- 
phone circuits play in making them possible. May be used to 
depict the number of employment opportunities available in 

News in the Air. 20 min. sound film. Describes the radio as a 
means of communication and dissemination of news. Employs 
the Panay incident as a typical situation from the time the 
reporter swims from the sinking vessel until the news is broad- 
cast over a major network. 

On the Air. 28 min. sound film. Describes how radio programs 
are written, built, rehearsed, timed and produced. A technical 
section describes "what makes radio work." 

Television. 9 min. sound film. Briefly describes the parts of the 
television receiver and transmitter. Shows the televised broad- 
cast of a horse race and the use of the mobile television trans- 
mitter unit. Shots of a televised studio broadcast. 

The two programs cited are merely examples of what may be 
done today to enrich the sciences by utilizing many different 
materials of instruction. There is no reason why similar pro- 
grams cannot be planned for use in chemistry, biology, general 
science, physics, physiology and hygiene. Lantern slides, illus- 
trating equipment, apparatus and diagrams, may all be made 
by pupils and used as part of the demonstrations. Filmstrips 



dealing with the lives and contributions to science of eminent 
scientists are available and should be used as part of the class 

Although the programs cited call attention to materials to 
be seen in a great museum in one large city, programs of this 
type may be used in any schoolroom today. In place of a field 
trip to a museum, the teacher may substitute an exhibit of 
materials borrowed from a museum or other educational insti- 
tution. This method brings the museums and educational 
institutions into the classroom when it is not practical for the 
class to make actual field trips to them. Such materials should 
be brought into the classroom, made a part of classroom equip- 
ment, and used to vitalize and enrich discussion periods and 
laboratory experiments. 


XIII. rianninQ 

tlie Audio-Visual 

roe ram 

cepted today as a valuable method of teaching and integrating 
the various areas in the curriculum. Learning wholly through 
the ears by means of the spoken word has always been recog- 
nized, although it has often resulted in "verbalism," a mere 
hearing of words, a memorizing of informative facts without 
any real understanding and appreciation of their meaning. 
When boys and girls "see" as well as "hear" the subject con- 
tent, then the words become meaningful. 

Audio- visual enrichment programs should be carefully pre- 
pared with a full understanding of the content and aim of each 
aid, the reasons for its use and combination with other aids. 
For each visual and audio-visual aid has a particular useful- 
ness and advantage which is often intensified by combination 
with other aids. The teacher who plans the programs should 
be skilled in the selection and combination of the various aids 
which best interpret the meaning of the areas presented. 
Often, and especially with younger children, there is the need 
of multi-sensory appeal through eyes, ears and fingers. Stere- 
opticon slides might fully enrich the content of one lesson, 
kodachrome slides might be the best selection for another— an 
art program for example— whereas a combination of slides, 
films, color prints, habitat groups, models, dioramas and school 
trips might be essential for enrichment programs integrating 
various areas in the curriculum. 



It is for the teacher to decide which aids and combinations 
of aids are to be used with the objective of changing the cur- 
riculum from stereotyped, formal, verbal learning in unrelated 
areas, to vital, human, sensory and happy learning in related 
areas. Through this method, opportunity is given for individ- 
ual thinking, feeling and doing— instead of limiting learning 
to the intellectual activities alone which were formerly of the 
first concern. 

no subject in the curriculum should be taught as an area by 
itself, but rather in relation to other areas, integrated programs 
are important in presenting this relationship. Visual and audio- 
visual aids increase the interest which children have in these 
various areas and bring home to them their close relationship 
in what otherwise might be abstract, indefinite experiences. 
Audio-visual aids substitute concrete, definite experiences 
which enrich and humanize learning, build up broader back- 
grounds, and make the content of each area meaningful, con- 
necting it with real life. 

All will agree that literature should not be "dissected" but 
humanized. By means of audio-visual aids, children are ena- 
bled to "live" past experiences and enjoy new ones through the 
sympathetic sharing of the experiences of the characters in 
stories and personalities in history and science. Brain and 
hand, feeling and will, become active in vital experiences 
through audio-visual enrichment, which not only shows the 


relation of various areas in the curriculum one to another, but 
the contribution each has to offer to the integrated knowledge 
which will enrich the lives of our boys and girls. Critical think- 
ing, individual feeling and dynamic doing are stimulated. The 
desire to see original material in proper settings is aroused, 
enabling the real experience to become the learning situation, 
and thus providing functional learning. 

Through these programs, interest which has been created 
in one area is kindled, also, in related areas. The value of such 
integrated programs, with appeal through seeing, hearing, 
touching, creating, is self-evident. Such presentations enrich 
and humanize learning. Audio-visual programs in which chil- 
dren take an active part in research and creative expression 
stimulate an even greater understanding of the various areas 
which they integrate and enrich. 

BUDGET. The extent to which the school audio-visual en- 
richment program may be developed depends upon the school 
budget, donations from parent organizations, and returns from 
school entertainments, "fairs," etc. 

Many schools are without these facilities and must base 
their programs upon free materials which are available. For- 
tunately there are both educational and commercial films with- 
out fees— such as government films and those which present, 
often in a vivid, educational manner, commercial products. 
There are stereopticon slides, black and white and color prints 
which may be borrowed, even habitat groups, dioramas and 



unit materials.* These aids enable programs to be presented 
although lack of funds may limit their scope and hinder the 
realization of ideals. 

Some schools are fortunate in receiving financial help from 
their Parent Associations. Hunter College Elementary School 
in New^ York City is unique since it not only has the budget for 
audio-visual enrichment programs provided by its Parent As- 
sociation, but also receives the services of an active and ef- 
fective parent committee. The members of this Audio- Visual 
Enrichment Committee procure the materials, help in operat- 
ing machines and arrange bulletin boards. A teacher commit- 
tee also cooperates with the Chairman of Audio- Visual En- 

CLASSROOM PREPARATION. Teaching programs in 
most subjects are carried out in classrooms. It should be kept 
in mind that the classroom is the frame or setting for a pro- 
gram. This setting should be properly arranged if good results 
are to be achieved. Good films, slides, pictures or maps are of 
little help if they are poorly and improperly used and dis- 
played in the classroom. 

The first item to be checked is equipment for projection. If 
it is necessary to project in a darkened room, proper window 
curtains or shades should be provided, so that maximum bril- 
liance and clearness are achieved. Projector and screen should 
be set up and checked before the class convenes. Last-minute 

* See Chapter XVI, "Where to Obtain Help." 



adjustments distract the attention of the children and also take 
time that might better be spent in presentation of the lesson. 
If anything is wrong with the projector, or if repairs are neces- 
sary, they should be attended to before the class period in 
which the projector is to be used. 

If flat prints, dolls, objects, maps or other aids are to be used, 
they should be set out on shelves or bulletin-display boards 
before the lesson starts. All materials that are to be used for 
a particular lesson should be taken out of cupboards and so 
placed that they are accessible when needed. Time spent in 
hurried searching for some item is class time wasted. 

A special room devoted to audio-visual aids is highly desirable. A 
teacher should be in charge to advise and assist in the presentation 
and procurement of aids needed in the classrooms. 



TEACHING AIDS. Wherever possible, teaching aids 
should be displayed in the classroom for a long enough period 
of time for the children to become familiar with them. They 
should also be displayed in an attractive arrangement. Mod- 
em advertising display techniques might well be utilized in 
order to catch and hold the attention of pupils. The amount 
of material on display at any one tin^ depends upon how much 
material is needed and also upon how much the teacher feels 
it wise to display for any one lesson. This is a matter which 
varies according to the subject, the amount of material avail- 
able, the need for supplementary teaching aids, the quality 
of material available, and the intelligence level of the class. 
One picture, effectively displayed, may be better at one time 
than a series of pictures. At another time a series of related 
pictures may be needed to illustrate and clarify some topic 
that has baffled and dismayed another group. 

Even though a school has a center for the storage, care and 
distribution of teaching aids, each teacher should have mate- 
rials in her own room which are directly related to the subject 
she teaches. This collection, which may consist of pictures, 
maps, clippings, posters or pamphlets, will enable her to have 
an ever-ready source of supplementary material upon which 
to draw. Then, when additional aids, such as motion pictures, 
lantern slides, filmstrips, dolls, etc., are needed, they may be 
secured from the general school collection. If the children 
bring to school clippings and other material, both the class- 
room collection and pupil interest will be increased. 


THE AUDIO-VISUAL ROOM. The question of whether 
or not it is advisable to set aside a separate room for the audio- 
visual program is one which depends upon the school layout 
and construction, the school budget and the teaching program. 
The ideal situation would be to have each classroom provided 
with equipment for the showing of motion pictures and slides, 
and sufficient cupboard space to have the other aids kept in 
readiness. This, however, involves an expenditure of money 
not possible for the average school. The best, practical situa- 
tion would be to have an audio-visual room on each floor of the 
school building. 

One practical solution to the problem is to have one room in 
which all projection equipment is set up and kept in readiness 
for use at all times, and to take classes to this room when audio- 
visual aids are to be used. If this plan is followed, one teacher 
should be in charge of the room and a definite time schedule 
arranged for its use. If the teacher assigned to be in charge of 
the audio-visual room is also to plan the audio-visual program 
for classes using the facilities of the room, she should not be 
expected to carry a full teaching schedule of other subjects. 
The successful planning and carrying out of an effective audio- 
visual enrichment program is a full-time assignment in itself. 

The room selected should have good acoustical properties 
in order that sound motion pictures and recordings may be 
used to full advantage. Poor sound effects are as much a hin- 
drance to good teaching as poor films. The room should be cen- 
trally located and easily accessible to classes from all parts of 



the building. The windows should be equipped with heavy 
curtains or shades so that the room may be darkened suffi- 
ciently to insure good projection. A roll screen mounted on the 
wall, or a standing screen should be in readiness at all times. 
The projector to be used, whether motion picture, filmstrip, 
or lantern slide, should be set up and focused before the class 
arrives. If the class teacher is to be the projectionist, she 
should have the films or slides in order for insertion in the 
machine. When sound materials are to be used, the sound 
speaker should be connected. If a student projectionist or the 
audio-visual aid teacher is to be projectionist, these same de- 
tails should be checked before each class arrives. 

A portable projector for 2 x 2 inch slides and a microphone con- 
nected to a loudspeaker are convenient if the auditorium is not 
equipped with a projection booth. 


The audio-visual room should be large enough to accommo- 
date at least two classes. It is often wise to show motion pic- 
tures to more than one class at a time. When a guest speaker 
is present, several classes may be brought together for the 
program. For good audio- visual enrichment programs, the 
room devoted to these programs should be carefully planned 
and equipped. Then the program will be carried out in such a 
way that it becomes part of the whole teaching schedule, in- 
stead of being an afterthought. 

RIUM. Every school auditorium should be equipped with 
facilities for showing any and all of the types of materials 
already mentioned. Assembly progiams should be enriched 
by the showing of motion pictures; guest speakers should be 
asked to give illustrated talks; students should be encouraged 
to use these aids in presenting their own speeches or plays. 

One thing to be avoided, however, is the use of the audito- 
rium as the audio-visual room. If this plan is followed, it is 
likely to mean that motion pictures are shown to large groups 
of students, regardless of whether or not the pictures are ap- 
plicable to the needs of all or only part of the group. Students 
soon come to regard such motion picture showings merely as 
entertainment. When this occurs, no great gain will come from 
the use of even the very best teaching films, and mediocre 
films will be of still less value. 

The well-planned assembly program should be one part of 



the complete audio- visual enrichment program. If a class has 
been successful in the preparation of a good play, puppet show 
or radio-script, these will often prove of benefit to the whole 
school when given as an assembly presentation. But the audi- 
torium is not the place for the successful carrying out of audio- 
visual programs planned for individual class work. 

EQUIPMENT FOR DISPLAY. The audio-visual room 
should be provided with sufiicient space and equipment for 
proper display of the diflFerent types of teaching aids. Modern 
bulletin boards may be purchased, or made in the school shops. 
It is essential that such display boards be provided for the 
arrangement of flat pictures, maps and prints. Materials of this 
type often lose their effectiveness if poorly displayed or 
crowded into a small area. It is sometimes a good plan to have 
blackboard and display board sections alternating around two 
sides of the room. This makes it possible to show pictorial 
materials while still providing adequate space for blackboard 

Display cabinets with glass doors should be provided for 
objects which must be kept locked up or behind glass. A good 
type of cabinet is one with glass-doored shelves in the upper 
section and storage cupboard space in the lower section. Open 
shelf space should also be provided for materials which may 
safely be displayed in this way and for books, pictures, pottery 
and other objects. Whatever the type of cabinet, ample space 


should be provided so that many types of materials may be 
displayed and made available to the students. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS. The ingenious audio-visual 
teacher will try to change the exhibits on display frequently 
enough to keep student interest alive. Special exhibitions 
should be planned for the different holiday periods, for spe- 
cial lessons, for open-school week, for parent-teacher associa- 
tion meetings, and for many other occasions. These exhibits 
should not always be arranged by the same group of students, 
but all students should be encouraged to assist in the prepara- 
tion and setting up of such displays. Students should be 
encouraged to bring in material from home for temporary 
exhibits; friends should be invited to lend materials they have 
collected on trips to foreign countries; the entire teaching staff 
of the school should be invited to contribute objects for special 
exhibits; hobby and craft exhibits should be held, both for 
students and teachers. The arrangement of a special exhibit 
will often be found the means of arousing interest in some 
topic which would otherwise have made a mere routine lesson. 


CREATIVE ACHIEVEMENTS cannot be measured by 
laboratory tests. They are individual, often intangible, and 
usually progressive. 

Perhaps the understanding and appreciation of the w^onders 
of the world in science and art, the comprehension of world 
rather than national history and culture, the vision of world 
citizenship of tomorrow in a world where time and space have 
been conquered, are not the least of these results. Audio-visual 
aids can accomplish economically, effectively, and happily 
what only world travel can in relation to education on a world 
basis. They enable our boys and girls to participate in what 
seems to them actual reality of experience, so vital may be the 
use of these aids by those who realize their power and know 
how to make use of it. 

History ceases to be lessons of dates, names, events and 
places to be learned and soon forgotten. It comes to life 
through pictures of episodes and people, for "makers of pic- 
tures," whether they are painters of pictures or motion picture 
directors who often seek the help of the former, are able to 
present the scene as a whole rather than unfold it a bit at a 
time as historians must do in words. History and geography 
fit together like adjacent parts of a puzzle when audio-visual 
materials bring out the dependence of history upon environ- 
ment. Literature and science, art, arts and crafts, and music- 
all fall into place as vivid, integrated programs, made possible 
by the skillful selection and combination of these aids. 



Art and music, drama and the dance, belong to all of us, 
and are a part of our lives, whatever our country, race, religion 
or language may be. Through multi-sensory aids, the wonder of 
this realization enters the minds and hearts of the students. It 
makes them true creators, for they realize that there is no class 
or rank in this cultural heritage, that the message given can 
be understood by all. 

A special Library Corner can be set aside in any classroom where 
visual aids in the development of the language arts program can 
be displayed. 


Boys and girls grow in comprehension of the knowledge 
that the arts are everywhere, and that the enjoyment of them 
belongs to rich and poor alike. 

Robert W. de Forest, former president of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, and donor with Mrs. de Forest, of the Amer- 
ican Wing which has contributed much to the humanizing of 
art and history, often told audiences of children in the 
museum's illustrated and integrated story programs, that they 
were part owners of the gallery treasures because they were 
able to enjoy them. 

Audio-visual, integrated programs encourage children in 
their creativeness. They bring forth the idea, which to some 
children comes as a surprise, that creative ability may belong 
to the very poor as well as to those endowed with wealth. It 
is a wonderful idea which stimulates inventiveness and orig- 
inality in words both spoken and written, in both prose and 
poetry, in scientific experiments, in original music, and in 
artistic endeavors through various media— clay, crayon, chalk, 
paint, dioramas, models, etc. These common cultural lan- 
guages which they have come to understand produce critical 
thinking,^ individual feeling, and creative contributions. 

INFLUENCE ON CHARACTER. The understanding 
and enjoyment of world achievements which come through 
these programs, often stimulate ideals and develop character. 
A boy in one of New York City's large junior high schools, a 
problem in behavior, through his attendance at the museum's 



illustrated story -hour programs which vitalized art and inte- 
grated it with history, geography, and music, became so 
interested in the museum's treasures, that he gave up his ques- 
tionable street activities on Sundays, and visited the museum 
each week, instead. His work improved in school to the satis- 
faction of his teachers, and he helped his mother with money 
he earned on a job after school to which he was surprisingly 
faithful. He became a cooperative citizen, offering his serv- 

A giant meteor from outer space has multi-sensory appeal for these 
children visiting the Hayden Planetarium (New York). 



ices as a story hour "Knight" each Sunday. He made a real 
contribution to his community. 

If parents can be encouraged to take children on visits to 
places of interest they will be helping the teachers in the effort 
to make children visualize and appreciate the world in which 
they live. Parents' organizations often make this a part of their 
own program. Members of one such group visited the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History as a part of their parent train- 
ing program, and their reaction was expressed by one parent 
who said, "We took this excursion so that we could introduce 
these mothers to one of the finest educational opportunities 
in our city. We did this, not only for their edification, but so 
that they would interest members of their families (husbands 
and older children ) and their neighbors. We had ample evi- 
dence that this was achieved. Some said they could hardly 
wait for the week-end so that they could return with older 
children." Another group said they would not be satisfied until 
all the mothers in the school had been there and so they were 
going back to organize another visiting group. 

ing of boys and girls to serve as projectionists and assistants to 
the teacher in charge of visual instruction can be made a 
valuable experience for these students. At one school in up- 
state New York all projection is taken care of by the Student 
Projection Squad. Boys and girls are chosen for this squad 
by means of mechanical aptitude tests at the start of each 



school year. * In this way students are secured who have defi- 
nite aptitude for this type of work and an esprit de corps is 
estabhshed which is invaluable. The students thus selected 
are given a training course by the teacher in charge of visual 
instruction. It has been found wise not to draw upon students 
below the eighth grade. The members of the squad thus 
formed and trained are designated as Certified Operators, 
under direction of a Student Manager. All details, such as 
checking equipment, checking program of visual aids to be 
supplied to various teachers and assigning of projectionists, are 
carried out by this squad. 

As a result of using the services of a well-trained student 
squad, the following goals have been achieved in this school: 

1. Economical operation of the visual instruction program for 
the entire school. 

2. Training of students in mature human relation contacts and 
work responsibility. 

This program has virtually added a new course to the school 
curriculum, namely, a course in responsible self -management. 
Moreover, the student has been given a powerful new learning 
medium both for his own training and for the training of his 
f ellow-students. t 

* Three standardized tests have been found to be excellent: ( 1) O'Rourke's 
"Mechanical Aptitudes Test", (2) Mellenbruch, Form A, and (3) Re\ised 
Minnesota Form Board Test, Series A. 

^ The program described is in operation at the Roelif Jansen Central School, 
Hillsdale, New York, under the direction and supervision of Mr. George 
Colclough, Director of Visual Instruction at the school. Mr. Colclougli's com- 
plete program is described by him in "Let's Build That Bridge," Educational 
Screen, 1946. 



been given an opportunity to see works of art and examples 
of skilled craftsmanship, they gradually become aware of the 
fact that they themselves can make these experiences part of 
their own lives. In the Red Bank, New Jersey, High School, a 
recent project proved the practical value of training students, 
through visual methods, to create their own works of art. 
The art instructor departed from the usual practice of paint- 
ing pictures, designs, posters, etc., and inaugurated a project 
of repainting and redecorating old furniture. She had 

High school students of Red Bank, New Jersey, show skilled crafts- 
manship in decorating old furniture. 



worked with Peter Hunt, popular decorator, whose furniture 
and European peasant designs have proved so popular. The 
designs were so colorful and appealing that she saw in this 
branch of art an opportunity to give her students the experi- 
ence of actually decorating and refinishing a piece of furni- 
ture and at the same time producing a beautiful example of 
design work.* 

The entire story of color and design was carefully reviewed. 
Many pictures and magazine clippings of furniture and in- 
teriors were studied and discussed. Actual and "imagined" 
plans for homes, color schemes, and furnishings were thor- 
oughly examined. Each student was then permitted to bring 
into the classroom a chair, a small table, radio cabinet or the 
like, on which he could work and which was his to take home 
when finished. Generally speaking, only a small proportion 
of the classroom results were of exhibit standard. However, 
regardless of the student's skill, even those below average 
learned to produce a finished product in this furniture line. 

Close correlation of all past work was maintained and the 
project became the tangible evidence of the value of a mass 
of accumulated knowledge. The students drew upon a knowl- 
edge of the characteristics of paints; they learned how to mix 
and prepare paints; how to clean, scrape, sandpaper, and re- 
vamp old furniture; how to apply the new paint and the design 
and finally how to "antique" the finished product. 

* This project was conceived and carried out by Mrs. Frances A. Moore, Art 
Instructor at the Red Bank, New Jersey, High School, during 1945-1946. 



Creative work of this type takes art out of the classroom and 
places it in the home and in the community. It also proves to 
students that artistic skill and craftsmanship are not reserved 
for the creators of museum pieces but are abilities that may 
be acquired in some degree by anyone. Students hitherto 
totally disinterested in decorating or painting took a keen in- 
terest in these subjects when they saw the practical applica- 
tion to objects that were part of home and everyday life. 

The influence of the popular decorator, Peter Hunt, is shown in this 
old dresser, redecorated by high school students at Red Bank. 






■ H 

f" 'm 


i * 


XV. Teacher Education 

DO EDUCATORS of today consider seriously enough the 
responsibihty of teacher education institutions to acquaint stu- 
dents about to go out into schools as teachers with the impor- 
tance of audio-visual aids and their effectiveness in teaching? * 

More and more schools throughout the country are making 
use of the equipment and materials now more generally avail- 
able. Student teachers should start their teaching experience 
with full knowledge of what audio-visual enrichment means, 
its dynamic influence upon the curriculum and upon world 

They should be acquainted with the techniques and skills, 
with the sources of equipment and materials of this vital 
method of teaching, with its power as a means of integration 
with various areas in the curriculum. 

The misuse of audio-visual aids must be made clear to these 
new teachers in order to afford a better understanding of their 
proper use. Many teachers already in schools, often with years 
of experience, have the impression that audio-visual enrich- 
ment means, literally, the mere showing in classroom or 
auditorium of many audio-visual aids— flat pictures, slides, 
filmstrips, dioramas, etc. New and inexperienced teachers 
need to realize, through required courses which are a definite 
part of their teacher-training, that this way of presenting 

* This chapter is offered as a possible guide for training student teacher classes 
in the use of audio-visual materials and equipment. It is an outline for course 
work in this field. 



audio-visual aids is not genuine audio- visual enrichment. 
These courses must demonstrate, through an understanding 
of the philosophy and educational principles involved, through 
concrete examples of programs which show the proper and 
eflFective use of these materials, that audio-visual enrichment 
of the curriculum includes: 

1. An understanding of the various sensory materials avail- 
able, and their sources. 

2. The realization that an eflFective use of these materials 
necessitates intelligent research, selection, evaluation, elimi- 
nation and combination of the aids and the harmonious rela- 
tionship of one aid to another. 

3. A conviction that audio-visual enrichment is not a sepa- 
rate subject but a teaching method applicable to any and all 
areas in the curriculum. They should realize that it results in 
economical, vital and happy learning. 

4. Understanding of the interdependence of the various 
curriculum areas which these aids integrate, and their cultural 

5. The need of a specialist to teach and demonstrate the vital 
use of these materials. 

6. A basic development of operational skills. 

7. The realization that these aids will never take the place of 
teachers but will greatly aid in vivid, happy learning experi- 
ences which approximate reality— that they supplement teach- 



During the course there should be an opportunity, in 
laboratory periods, for each of the students to give an audio- 
visual integrated program of his or her own planning, in which 
the principles and techniques presented in the course are 
demonstrated in regular classroom procedures so far as pos- 

Reports, evaluations of audio-visual aids, constructive criti- 
cisms of programs and free discussions would be important 
factors of the course, as vital as the lectures, demonstrations 
and laboratory periods. Group conferences, also, would be 
helpful among the specialists and the student teachers and, 
whenever possible, with children who have been in the demon- 
stration audiences, for their reactions are important. 


1. Philosophy underlying effective utilization of audio-visual 

2. How to plan and organize an effective audio- visual teach- 
ing program. 

3. How to plan and organize the audio- visual instruction 

4. Enrichment of social studies through audio-visual aids. 

5. Enrichment of language arts through audio-visual aids. 

6. Enrichment of the sciences through audio-visual aids. 

* This is being done in workshops in the Hunter College Education Depart- 
ment and in the School of Education, New York University. 



7. How to organize and arrange classroom and school mu- 
seums and exhibits. 

8. Sources for audio-visual materials and equipment. 

9. How to operate various types of projection equipment. 

a. Demonstrations by instructor. 

b. Operation by students. 

10. Motion Pictures. 

a. Discussions of techniques for using motion pictures. 

b. Demonstrations of use of motion pictures in actual class- 
room situations. 

c. Evaluation of motion pictures available for school use. 

d. Production of school pupil-made motion pictures. 

11. Photography and Camera Clubs, Flat Pictures. 

a. Techniques for use of photographs and pictures. 

b. How to organize and conduct a school camera club. 

12. Lantern Slides. 

a. Discussions of techniques for utilization of lantern slides. 

b. How to make standard size and miniature lantern slides. 

c. Demonstration of use of lantern slides in actual classroom 

13. Filmstrips. 

a. Discussion of techniques for utilization of filmstrips. 

b. How to make filmstrips. 

c. Demonstration of use of filmstrips in actual classroom 



14. Dioramas. 

a. How to make dioramas. 

b. Demonstration of ways of using dioramas in actual class- 
room situations. 

15. Maps, Charts and Globes. 

a. Discussion of techniques for use of maps, charts and 

b. Demonstration of effective utilization of maps, charts, and 

16. Radio, Television, Recordings. 

a. Discussion of techniques for utilization of radio, tele- 
vision, and recordings. 

b. Production and presentation of programs using these ma- 

17. Training the Student Visual- Aid Staff. 

a. How to organize and train a student visual-aid staff.' 

b. Role of student visual-aid staff in audio-visual program of 

18. Criteria and Standards for Selection and Use of Audio- 
Visual Materials. 

a. Discussion of criteria and standards applicable to vari- 
ous types of materials. 

b. Formulation of criteria and standards for selection and 
use of audio- visual materials. 


XVI. Where to Obtain Help 






Superintendent of Visual Aids, University of Alabama, University. 


Director of Extension, University of Arizona, Tucson. 


Director, Department of Public Relations, Arkansas State Teachers 
College, Normal Station, Conway. 


Extension Division, University of California, Berkeley. 
Extension Division, University of California, Los Angeles. 
Visual Aids Supervisor, Department of Education, Los Angeles. 
Director of Visual Education, Stockton Junior College, Stockton. 
Visual Education Department, Mendocino County Schools, Ukiah. 


Director, Bureau of Visual Instruction, University of Colorado, 

Director, Film Center, University of Denver, Denver. 
Colorado State College of Education, Greeley. 


Director, Audio- Visual Aids Center, University of Connecticut, 


Department of Audio- Visual Instruction, University of Florida, 


General Extension Service, University System of Georgia, Atlanta. 




University Extension Division, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 


Assistant Extension Editor, Extension Service, University of Idaho, 

Director, University Educational Film Service, University of 

Idaho, Southern Branch, Pocatello. 


Director, Film Library, Southern Illinois Normal University, Car- 
Supervisor of Visual Aids, University of Illinois, Champaign. 


Consultant, Bureau of Audio- Visual Aids, Indiana University, 

Director, Teaching Materials Service, Ball State Teachers Col- 
lege, Muncie. 

Director of Extension, Indiana State Teachers College, Terre 


Director, Visual Instruction Service, Iowa State College, Ames. 
Department of Visual Instruction, University of Iowa, Iowa City. 


Director, Extension Division, Kansas State College, Fort Hays. 
Bureau of Visual Instruction, Extension Division, University of 
Kansas, Lawrence. 


Audio-Visual Aids Department, University of Kentucky, Lexing- 


Department of Visual Instruction, State Department of Educa- 
tion, Baton Rouge. 
General Extension Service, Louisiana State University, University. 




Dean, School of Education, University of Maine,. Orono. 


Maryland Academy of Sciences, Baltimore. 


Director of Visual Instruction, State Department of Education, 

Director, Division of Teaching Aids, Boston University, Boston. 
Director, Harvard Film Service, Harvard University, Cambridge. 


Director, Visual Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 
Assistant Extension Editor, Information Service, Michigan State 

College, East Lansing. 
Director of Extension, Central Michigan College of Education, Mt. 



Director, Visual Education, Extension Division, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis 14. 


Visual Education Service, Extension Division, University of Mis- 
souri, Columbia. 


Director of Publications, Extension Service, Montana State Col- 
lege, Bozeman. 

Supervisor, Visual Aids in Education, Department of Public In- 
struction, Helena. 


University Extension Division, Univerisity of Nebraska, Lincoln. 


Extension Forester and Film Librarian, University of Nevada, 




Extension Specialist in Visual Aids, University of New Hampshire, 
Director, Dartmouth College Films, Hanover. 


New Jersey State Museum, Trenton. 

Teaching Aids Service, New Jersey State Teachers College, Mont- 


Director of Extension, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 


Buffalo Society of Natural Science, Buffalo. 

Principal, State Normal and Training School, Cortland. 

Executive Secretary, Cooperative Film Library, State Teachers 
College, Fredonia. 

Film Librarian, New York University Film Library, Washington 
Square, New York City. 

Department of Education, American Museum of Natural History, 
Central Park West at 79th Street, New York City. 

Executive Secretary, Adirondack Film Library, State Teachers 
College, Plattsburg. 

Executive Secretary, Potsdam State Teachers College, Coopera- 
tive School Film Library of Northern New York, Potsdam. 

Librarian, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester, Rochester. 

School of Education, Syracuse University, Syracuse. 


Bureau of Visual Instruction, University Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 


Director of Visual Education, North Dakota State College, Fargo. 
University Extension Division, University Station, Grand Forks. 




Director of Visual Instruction, State Department of Education, 


Director of Visual Instruction, East Central State College, Ada. 
Extension Division, University of Oklahoma, Norman. 


Head, Visual Instruction Department, Oregon State College, 


Registrar, Classroom Film Library, Bucknell University, Lewis- 

Sensory Aids Director, State Teachers College, Millersville. 

Curator, Commercial Museum, Philadelphia. 

Curator, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 33rd and 
Spruce Streets, Philadelphia. 

Director, P.C.W. Film Service, Pennsylvania College for Women, 

Supervisor, Audio-Visual Aids, Pennsylvania State College, State 


Department of Education, San Juan. 


Director, Extension Division, University of S. C, Columbia. 


Director of Extension, University of South Dakota, Vermillion. 


specialist in School and Community Service, University Extension, 
University of Tennessee, Box 4218, University Station, Knoxville. 

Director, Joint University Libraries, Vanderbilt University, Nash- 



Director, Visual Instruction, Extension Building, University of 
Texas, Austin. 

Director, Film Division, Bureau of Public Service, West Texas 
State Teachers College, Canyon. 

Department of Public Service, Sam Houston State Teachers Col- 
lege, Huntsville. 

Director, East Texas Bureau of Visual Education, Kilgore Junior 
College, Kilgore. 

Director, Division of Extension, Texas Technological College, 

Department of Education, S. A. Austin State Teachers College, 


Secretary, Bureau of Visual Instruction, Brigham Young University, 
Director, Extension Division, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 


Robert Hull Fleming Museum, Classroom Film Library, Uni- 
versity of Vermont, Burlington. 


Supervisor, Audio-Visual Education, State Board of Education, 

Director, Bureau of Audio-Visual Aids, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Virginia, University. 


Director of Public Service, Central Washington College of Edu- 
cation, EUensburg. 

Director, Bureau of Visual Instruction, State College of Washing- 
ton, Pullman. 




Librarian, West Virginia University, Morgantown. 


Bureau of Visual Instruction, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 



A. F. Films, Inc. 1600 Broadway, New York 19, New York 
Akin and Bagshaw, Inc., 2023 E. Colfax Avenue, Denver, Colorado 
American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central 

Park West; New York 24, New York 
Association Films (Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau) 

351 Turk Street, San Francisco 2, California 

19 South La Salle Street, Chicago 3, Illinois 

347 Madison Avenue, New York 17, New York 

1700 Patterson Avenue, Dallas 1, Texas 
Astor Pictures Corporation, 130 West 46th Street, New York 19, 

New York 
Bailey Film Service, P.O. Box 2528, Hollywood 28, California 
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Rochester 2, New York 
Bell and Howell Company, 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago 45, 


Brandon Films, 1600 Broadway, New York 19, New York 
Bray Studios, Inc., 729 Seventh Avenue, New York 19, New York 
Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York 
Cathedral Films, 6404 Sunset Boulevard, P.O. Box 589, Hollywood 

28, California 
Catholic Movies, 220 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New York; 

1409-79th Street, North Bergen, New Jersey 
Commonwealth Pictures Corporation, 729 Seventh Avenue, New 

York 19, New York 



De Vry School Films, 1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. ( Kodascope Libraries Division ) , 356 

Madison Avenue, New York 17, New York 
Edited Pictures System, 165 West 46th Street, New York 19, New 

Encyclopedia Britannica Films Inc., 20 North Wacker Drive, 

Chicago 6, Illinois 
Eye Gate House, Inc„ 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New 

Films, Inc. 

1709 W. 8th Street, Los Angeles 14, California 

101 Marietta Street, Atlanta 3, Georgia 

64 East Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois 

330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New York 

109 N. Akard Street, Dallas 1, Texas 
Gallagher Fi^m Service, Bay Theater Building, Green Bay, Wis- 
consin; 639 N. 7th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
General Electric Company, 1 River Road, Schnectady 5, New York 
Hoffberg Productions, Inc., 620 Ninth Avenue, New York 18, N.Y. 
Institutional Cinema Service, Inc., 1560 Broadway, New York 19, 

New York 
The Jam Handy Organization, 2821 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit 

11, Michigan 
Knowledge Builders (Classroom Films), 625 Madison Avenue, 

New York 22, New York 
Lewis Film Service, 1145 N. Market Street, Wichita 5, Kansas 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company ( Health and Welfare Divi- 
sion), 1 Madison Avenue, New York 10, New York 
The Museum of Modern Art Film Library, 11 West 53rd Street, 

New York 19, New York 
Natiopal Audubon Society, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, N.Y. 
National Council of Teachers of English, 211 West 68th Street, 

Chicago 21, Illinois 



Official Films, Inc., 25 West 45th Street, New York 19, New York 
Pictorial Films, Inc., R.K.O. Building, Radio City, New York 20, 

New York 
Post Pictures Corporation, 723 Seventh Avenue, New York 19, 

New York 
The Princeton Film Center, Princeton, New Jersey 
Screen Adettes Inc. 

1709 West 8th Street, Los Angeles 14, California 

68 Post Street, San Francisco 4, California 

611 North Tillamook Street, Portland 12, Oregon 
Shadow Arts Studio, 1036 Chorro Street, San Luis Obispo, Cali- 
Southern Visual Films, 686-689 Shrine Building, Memphis 1, 

Swank Motion Pictures, 614 N. Skinker Boulevard, St. Louis 5, 

Visual Education, Inc. 

Twelfth at Lamar, Austin 21, Texas 

602 N. St. Paul Street, Dallas 1, Texas 

4431 Foard, Fort Worth, Texas 

3905 South Main Street, Houston 4, Texas 
Young America Films, Inc., 18 East 41st Street, New York 17, 

New York 


Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York 
Cathedral Films, 6404 Sunset Boulevard, P.O. Box 589, Hollywood 

28, California 
Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New 

Informative Classroom Picture Publishers, 40 Ionia Avenue, N.W., 

Grand Rapids 2, Michigan 



The Jam Handy Organization, 2821 East Grand Boulevard, De- 
troit 11, Michigan 

Lee Lyles, Assistant to the President, Santa Fe Railway, Chicago, 

Philp Photo Visual Service, 1954 Pasadena Avenue, Long Beach 6, 

Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 
11, Illinois 

Stillfilm, Inc., 8443 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood 46, California 

Visual Sciences, SuflFern, New York 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society, Inc., 3740 OHver Street 
N.W., Washington 15, D.C. 

Young America Films, 18 East 41st Street, New York 17, New York 


American Optical Company, Box A, Buffalo 15, New York 
Ampro Corporation, 2835 N. Western Avenue, Chicago 18, Illinois; 
545 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Rochester 2, New York 
Bell and Howell Company, 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago 45, 
Charles Beseler Company, 243 East 23rd Street, New York 10, 
New York 
De Vry Corporation, 1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago 14, Illinois 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, New York 
Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, N. Y. 
Gallagher Film Service, Bay Theater Building, Green Bay, Wis- 
consin; 639 N. 7th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Hirsch and Kaye, 239 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 8, CaUfornia 
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania 
Radio Corporation of America, RCA Victor Division, Educational 
Department, Camden, New Jersey 



Ralke Company, 829 South Flower Street, Los Angeles 14, Cali- 
Ryan Visual Aids Service, 409-411 Harrison Street, Davenport, 

Sawyer's Inc. (View-Master), 725 S.W. 20th Place, Portland 7, 

S.O.S. Cinema Supply Corporation, 449 West 42nd Street, New 

York 18, New York 
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 

11, Illinois 
Southern Visual Films, 686-689 Shrine Building, Memphis 1, 

Victor Animatograph Corporation (Division of Curtiss-Wright 

Corp.), Davenport, Iowa 
Visual Education, Inc. 

Twelfth at Lamar, Austin 21, Texas 

602 N. St. Paul Street, Dallas 1, Texas 

4431 Foard, Fort Worth, Texas 

3905 South Main Street, Houston 4, Texas 


Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Avenue, New York 22, New York 
David Bogen Company, Inc., 663 Broadway, New York 12, N. Y. 
General Electric Company, River Road, Schenectady 5, New York 
The Hallicrafters Company, 4401 West Fifth Avenue, Chicago 24, 

Radio Corporation of America, RCA Victor Division, Educational 

Department, Camden, New Jersey 
Rek-0-Kut Company, 146 Grand Street, New York 13, New York 
Wilcox-Gay Corporation, Charlotte, Michigan 


Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc., 2711-23 N. Pulaski Road, Chicago 
39, Ilhnois 



Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New 

Hirsch and Kaye, 239 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 8, California 

Radiant Manufacturing Corporation, 1140-46 West Superior Street, 
Chicago 22, Illinois 

Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 
11, Illinois 

Southern Visual Fihns, 686-689 Shrine Building, Memphis 1, Ten- 


American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central 
Park West, New York 24, New York 

Art Education, Inc., 6 East 34th Street, New York 16, New York 
(2x2" slides only) 

Brooking Tatum, Kelseyville, California 
(2x2" slides only) 

Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York 
(2x2" slides only) 

Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New 

Gallagher Film Service, Bay Theater Building, Green Bay, Wis- 
consin; 639 N. 7th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; (2x2" sHdes 

Hirsch and Kaye, 239 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 8, California 

Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania 

Kime Kolor Pictures, 1761 Sonoma Drive, Altadena, California 
(2x2" slides only) 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 82nd Street and Fifth Avenue, New 
York 28, New York 

Munday and Collins, 814 West 8th Street, Los Angeles 14, Cali- 



National Audubon Society, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New 

Philp Photo Visual Service, 1954 Pasadena Avenue, Long Beach 6, 
California ( 2x2" slides only ) 

Ryan Visual Aids Service, 409-411 Harrison Street, Davenport, 

Shadow Arts Studio, 1036 Chorro Street, San Luis Obispo, Cali- 

Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 
11, Illinois 


Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania 
Sawyer's Inc. (View-Master), 725 S.W. 20th Place, Portland 7, 


Denoyer-Geppert Company, 5235 Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago 

40, Illinois 
C. S. Hammond and Company, 88 Lexington Avenue, New York 

16, New York 
National Geographic Society ( School Service Division ) , 16 and M 

Streets N.W., Washington 6, D.C. 
A. J. Nystrom and Company, 3333 Elston Avenue, Chicago 18, 

Rand McNally and Company 

125 E. Sixth Street, Los Angeles, California 

619 Mission Street, San Francisco, California 

National Press Building, Washington, D.C. 

536 S. Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois 

111 Eighth Avenue, New York 11, New York 
Weber Costello Company, 12th and McKinley, Chicago Heights, 





Since there are many museums in the United States, it would be 
beyond the scope of this book to Hst them all. A classified direc- 
tory of the nation's museums is contained in The Museum In 
America by Laurence V. Coleman. Price per set $7.50. Published 
by the American Association of Museums, at the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Washington 25, D.C. This book may be seen in any 
museum library. 

Following is a partial listing of representative Aiuseums offering 
their facilities for use in audio-visual education: 


Petrified Forest National Monument, Holbrook 


Los Angeles County Museum of History, Science and Art, Exposi- 
tion Park, Los Angeles 7 

Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 42 

Oakland Public Museum, 1426 Oak Street, Oakland 12 

Junipero Serra Museum, San Diego Historical Society, 2727 Presi- 
dio Drive, San Diego 3 

San Diego Museum of Man, Balboa Park, San Diego 

California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco 

California Palace of the Legion of Honor, Lincoln Park, San Fran- 
cisco 21 

M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, Golden Gate Park, San Fran- 

Junior Museum, 600 Ocean Avenue, San Francisco 




University of Colorado Museum, Boulder 

The Denver Art Museum, Denver 

Mesa Verde National Park Museum, Mesa Verde National Park 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park 


The Bruce Museum of Greenwich, Greenwich 
Children's Museum of Hartford, 609 Farmington Avenue, Hart- 
ford 5 
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven 

The Slater Memorial Museum, Norwich Free Academy, Norwich 
Stamford Museum of Natural History, Stamford 


The Howard University Gallery of Art, Founders Library, Howard 
University, Washington 1 

The Barnett Aden Gallery, 127 Randolph Place N.W., Wash- 
ington 1 


The Art Institute of Chicago, Michigan Avenue at Adams Street, 

Chicago 3 
The Chicago Academy of Sciences, 2001 North Clark Street, 

Chicago 14 
Illinois State Museum, Springfield 


Davenport Public Museum, Davenport 
Department of History and Archives, Des Moines 
Museum of Natural History, University of Iowa, Iowa City 


The Baker-Hunt Foundation, Inc., 620 Greenup Street, Covington 
The J. B. Speed Memorial (Art) Museum, Third and Shipp Streets, 
Louisville 8 




Louisiana State Museum, Jackson Square, New Orleans 16 


Wadsworth-Longfellow House, 487 Congress Street, Portland 


Baltimore Museum of Art, Wyman Park, Baltimore 18 
Ft. McHenry, Baltimore 

Maryland Historical Society Museum and Library, 201 W. Monu- 
ment Street, Baltimore 1 

Municipal Museum of the City of Baltimore, Baltimore 
Star-Spangled Banner Flag House, 844 E. Pratt Street, Baltimore 
Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore 
The Washington County Museum of Fine Arts, Hagerstown 


Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover 

Attleboro Museum, Attleboro 

The Children's Museum (Boston), 60 Burroughs Street, Jamaica 
Plain 30 

Institute of Modern Art, Boston 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 15 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 141 Cam- 
bridge Street, Boston 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge 38 

Botanical Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge 

The Longfellow House, 105 Brattle Street, Cambridge 

The Fitchburg Art Center, Fitchburg 

The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield 

The Essex Institute, Salem 

Springfield Museum of Art, Springfield 

Department of Art ( Farnsworth Museum of Art ) , Wellesley Col- 
lege, Wellesley 81 

Lawrence Art Museum, Williams College, Williamstown 

Worcester Art Museum, Worcester 




Educational Department, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit 2 
Children's Museum of Detroit, 5205 Cass Avenue, Detroit 2 
Grand Rapids Public Museum (Kent Scientific Museum), Grand 

The Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, Kalamazoo 9 
Kalamazoo Museum, 335 South Rose Street, Kalamazoo 


The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis 4 
Minneapolis Science Museum, 10th and Hennepin, Minneapolis 
Minnesota Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis 14 
Saint Paul Institute, St. Paul 
St. Paul Science Museum, 51 University Avenue, St. Paul 


William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Atkins Museum of Fine 

Arts, Kansas 2 

The St. Joseph Museum, 19th at Felix, St. Joseph 23 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, Forest Park 5 
Missouri Historical Society, Jefferson Memorial Building, St. Louis 

Division of Audio- Visual Education of the St. Louis Public Schools, 

4466 OHve Street, St. Louis 8 


Glacier National Park Museum, Helton 


The Currier Gallery of Art, 192 Orange Street, Manchester 


The Montclair Art Museum, South Mountain and Bloomfield 
Avenues, Montclair 




Aztec Ruins National Monument, P.O. Box 457, Aztec 
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe 
Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe 


Poe Cottage, Kingsbridge Road at Grand Concourse, Bronx 
Brooklyn Children's Museum, Brooklyn Avenue and Prospect 

Place, Brooklyn 
The Brooklyn Museum, The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 

Sciences, Eastern Parkway and Washington Avenue, Brooklyn 17 
LeflFerts Homestead, Prospect Park at Flatbush Avenue and Empire 

Boulevard, Brooklyn 
The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 

79th Street, New York 24 
American Numismatic Society, Broadway and 156th Street, New 

York 32 
The Cloisters (branch. Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fort Tryon 

Park 33, New York 

Fraunces Tavern, Broad and Pearl Streets, New York 
The Frick Collection, 1 East 70th Street, New York 21 
The Hispanic Society of America, Broadway and 156th Street, New 

York 32 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street, 

New York 28 
Museum of the American Indian, Broadway at 155th Street, New 

Museum of the City of New York, Fifth Avenue at 104th Street, 

New York 
The Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 33rd Street, New York 
The New York Botanic Garden Museum, 801 Madison Avenue, 

New York 
The New York Historical Society, 170 Central Park West, New 

York 24 



New York Museum of Science and Industry, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 

New York 20 
New York Zoological Park, Bronx Park, New York 60 
The Pierpont Morgan Library, 29 East 36th Street, New York 
The Roger Morris-Jumel Mansion, 160th Street and Edgecombe 

Avenue, New York 
Theodore Roosevelt House, 28 East 20th Street, New York 
Van Cortlandt House Museum, Van Cortlandt Park, New York 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 10 West 8th Street, New York 
The Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, Stuyvesant Place 

and Wall Street, St. George, Staten Island 

NEW YORK (state) 

Wells College, Department of Fine Arts, Aurora-on-Cayuga 
The Bear Mountain Trailside Museums and Nature Trails, Pali- 
sades Interstate Park Commission, Bear Mountain 
Albright Art Gallery, BuflFalo 9 

BuflFalo Museum of Science, Humboldt Park, BuflFalo 11 
Hudson River Museum at Yonkers, Trevor Park, Yonkers 3 


The Akron Art Institute, 140 East Market Stieet, Akron 8 

Taft Museum, Cincinnati Institute of Fine Arts, 316 Pike Street, 

Cincinnati 2 
Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden Park, Cincinnati 6 
Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, Central Parkway at Wal- 
nut Street, Cincinnati 10 
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland 6 
The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 2717 Euclid Avenue, 
Cleveland 15 
Ohio State Museum ( Educational Service ) , Columbus 
Johnson Humrickhouse Memorial Museum, Coshocton 
Dayton Public Library Museum, 251 E. 2nd Street corner Patter- 
son Boulevard, Dayton, 2 



Art Institute, Massillon 

The Dudley Peter Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, 

Butler Art Institute, 524 Wick Avenue, Youngstown 2 
Art Institute, Zanesville 


Portland Art Museum, West Park and Madison, Portland 5 


Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg 

The Commercial Museum, 34th Street below Spruce, Philadelphia 4 

The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 3 

Independence Hall, National Museum, Philadelphia 

The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 33rd and 

Spruce Streets, Philadelphia 4 
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13 

The Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery, Reading 
Everhart Museum of Natural History, Science and Art, Scranton 


Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence 3 


The Charleston Museum, Charleston 16 
The Gibbs Art Gallery, Charleston 
State Forestry Commission, Columbia 


Witte Museum, Brackenridge Park, San Antonio t 


Zion Museum, Zion National Park, Springdale 


Historical Museum, Bennington 
Old Stone House, Brown ington 
Robert Hull Fleming Museum, University of Vermont, Burlington 



White Schoolhouse, East Burke 

Fairbanks Museum of Natural Science, St. Johnsbury 
Westminster Institute, Westminster 
Country Store Museum, Weston 

Williams Collection of Japanese Art (Norman Williams Library), 


Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount Vernon 

The Valentine Museum, 1015 East Clay Street, Richmond 19 

Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., Williamsburg 


Mount Rainier National Park, Longmire 


Neville Public Museum, 129 S. JeflFerson Street, Green Bay 
Janesville Art League, Woman's Club, 108 S. Jackson, Janesville 
Kenosha Historical and Art Museum, Civic Center, Kenosha 
Madison Art Association, 2011 Monroe Street, Madison 
The State Historical Society of Wisconsin Museum, 816 State 

Street, Madison 6 
Wisconsin Union, University of Wisconsin, Madison 
Milwaukee Art Institute, 772 N. Jefferson Street, Milwaukee 2 
Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee 3 
Oshkosh Public Museum, 787 Algoma Boulevard, Oshkosh 
The Charles A. Wustum Museum of Fine Arts, 2542 N. Western 

Avenue, Racine 


Art Education, Inc., 6 East 34th Street, New York 16, New York 
Artext Prints, Inc., Westport, Connecticut 

Colonial Art Company, 1336-1338 N. West First Street, Oklahoma 
City 4, Oklahoma 



F. E. Compton Company, 1000 North Dearborn Street, Chicago 10, 

Creative Education Society, Mankato, Minnesota 
Informative Classroom Picture Publishers, 40 Ionia Avenue, N.W., 

Grand Rapids 2, Michigan 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 82nd Street and Fifth Avenue, New 

York 28, New York 
National Audubon Society, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, N. Y. 
National Geographic Society (School Service Division), 16 and 

M Streets N.W., Washington 6, D.C. 
The Perry Pictures Company, Maiden, Massachusetts 
Rudolf Lesch Fine Arts, Inc., 225 Fifth Avenue, New York 10, 

New York 
University Prints, 11 Boyd Street, Newton 58, Massachusetts 
W. A. Wilde Company, 131 Clarendon Street, Boston 16, Mass. 


Audio-Visual Aids Information Center, American Museum of 
Natural History, 79th Street and Central Park West, New York 24, 
New York 

Columbia Broadcasting Company, 485 Madison Avenue, New York 
22, New York 

Department of Visual Instruction, National Education Associa- 
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D.C. 

Directory of Film Sources, Bell and Howell Company, 7100 Mc- 
Cormick Road, Chicago 45, Illinois 

Education Film Guide, H. W. Wilson Company, 950-972 Univer- 
sity Avenue, New York 52, New York 





Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 1946, Dry den Press, 

New York, New York. 
Dent, E. C , The Audio-Visual Handbook. 1946. Society for Visual 

Education, Inc., Chicago, Illinois. 
Hoban, C. F., Jr., Focus on Learning: Motion Pictures in the School. 

1942. American Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 
Hoban, C. F.; Hoban, C. F., Jr., Visualizing the Curriculum, 1937. 

The Cordon Company, New York, New York. 
Keith, Alice, How To Speak and Write for Radio, 1944. Harper 

and Brothers, New York, New York. 
Levenson, W. B., Teaching Through Radio. 1945. Farrar and Rine- 

hart, New York, New York. 
McKown, H. C; Roberts, A. B., Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction. 

1940. McGraw-Hill Company, New York, New York. 
Wittich, W. A.; Fowlkes, J. G., Audio-Visual Paths to Learning. 

1946. Harper and Brothers, New York, New York. 


Business Screen, 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, 11, Illinois. 
Educational Screen, 64 East Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois. 
Audio-Visual Guide, 172 Renner Avenue, Newark, New Jersey. 
Film News, American Film Center, Inc.; 45 Rockefeller Plaza, 

New York 20, New York. 
Film World, 6060 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood 28, California. 
New Movies, National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 70 

Fifth Avenue, New York 11, New York. 
See and Hear, E. M. Hale Company, Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 



The terms included in this glossary are those used in the body of 
this textbook. From time to time commercial dealers and the pro- 
ducers of various audio-visual aids prepare new equipment, and 
the reader is advised to consult the catalogs and magazines dealing 
with such materials for additions and modifications in terminology. 

ANAGLYPH. A special type of stereoscopic picture printed in 
two colors ( red and blue ) . This picture must be viewed through 
a stereoscopic viewer fitted with similar two-color filters in order 
to obtain the three-dimensional effect which it is designed to give. 

ARTIFACTS. Anything made or modified by human skill; arti- 
ficially produced evidences of the life and culture of peoples. 

AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS. All or any of those teaching 
aids which may be brought to bear upon a lesson for the purpose 
of vitalizing and enriching the learning experience for the child. 

BALOPTICON. Trade name for the projector made by the 
Bausch and Lomb Company for the projection of lantern slides and 
opaque materials. ( See Opaque Projector. ) 

BEADED SCREEN. A white cloth screen, in the surface coat- 
ing of which are millions of small bead-particles of crystal or glass. 
Due to the combination of the reflective qualities of both the cloth 
and the beads, this screen gives a semi-diffuse reflection of light 
which is particularly effective for small projection rooms, where 
the viewing angle is less than twenty-two degrees, and for color 
projection. ( See also Opaque Screen, Screen, Sound Screen, Trans- 
lucent Screen.) 



CHART. A diagram, outline or delineation, having some geo- 
graphical or physical signification; a type of graph showing 
changes; a tabular representation of factual data. 

COLLECTION. A group of materials brought together in one 
place. The materials may be related in type and subject or they 
may be totally different. 

COVER GLASS. The clear, protecting glass placed over the 
picture drawn on etched or ground glass to make a lantern slide. 
The cover glass serves to protect the slide picture. 

DELINEASCOPE. Trade name for the projector manu- 
factured by the Spencer Lens Company for the projection of 
lantern slides and opaque materials. ( See Opaque Projector. ) 

DESIGN. The composition or arrangement of the various ele- 
ments of a picture to form an harmonious pattern. 

DIORAMA. The miniature, three-dimensional group consisting 
of small modeled and colored figures and specimens, with acces- 
sories, in an appropriate setting, and in most instances artificially 
lighted. The scale and size of the group is variable; there is no 
limitation as to subject matter, which may be realistic or imagina- 
tive according to what the creator of the group wishes to portray. 

EIGHT MILLIMETER FILM. The narrow-gauge, acetate- 
base film now available for use in classroom and home. At present 
it is not used to any great extent in schools, and is generally limited 
in scope and use. (See also Sixteen Millimeter Film, Thirty-five 
Millimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, Silent Film, Sound Film. ) 

ETCHED GLASS. Glass, one side or surface of which has been 
etched or ground with an abrasive. Glass so treated is most satis- 
factory for the making of lantern slides, as it takes crayon, pencil, 
ink and paint markings. It is also known as Ground Glass. 

EXHIBIT. A formal arrangement or presentation of objects, 


models, specimens or collections of materials for purposes of dis- 
play and study. 

FIELD TRIP. A journey taken by a class or school group to some 
point of interest outside the school building. The journey may be 
for the purpose of supplementing school work, or it may be for 
social purposes. ( See also Treasure Trip. ) 

FILMSLIDE. A slide made directly on color or black and white 
35 mm. non-inflammable film. The film is processed by the manu- 
facturer and returned as individual slides, either in cardboard 
mounts or in glass mounts. ( See also Filmstrip, Slidefilm, Picturol, 

FILMSTRIP. A sequence of still pictures made on a continuous 
roll of thirty-five millimeter, non-inflammable film, in black and 
white or color, containing sprocket holes and projected by means 
of a special projector made for this type of film. Single frame film- 
strips pass vertically through the projector; double frame film- 
strips pass through horizontally. (See also Filmslide, Picturol, 
Slidefilm, Stillfilm.) 

FILMSTRIP PROJECTOR. A machine especially designed 
for the projection of filmstrip material. 

FLAT PICTURES. The usual term applied to all unprojected 
prints, drawings, sketches and photographs. 

GLASS SLIDE. Designation for a lantern slide, either colored 
or black and white, made on glass, size 3/4 by 4 inches, to be used 
in a standard size lantern slide projector. ( See Lantern Slide. ) 

GLOBE. A spherical body on whose surface is depicted a repre- 
sentation of the geography of the earth or heaven. When the 
representation is that of the earth's surface, the sphere is called 
a terrestrial globe. When the representation is that of heavenly 
bodies, the sphere is known as a celestial globe. 

GRAPH. A diagrammatic representation of any sort of relation- 
ship by means of a system of dot and line markings. 



GROUND GLASS. See Etched Glass. 

HABITAT GROUP. The life-size, life-scale, three-dimensional 
group erected as a fixed part of the exhibits in a museum, for the 
purpose of displaying materials and specimens against a painted 
background which depicts, or is a composite approximating, an 
actual locality, and with accessories so arranged as to form an 
integral part of the group, usually artificially lighted. The true 
habitat group is a blending of accurate background, accessories 
and specimens so that it is a complete unit artistically, geographic- 
ally, historically and biologically. 

INTEGRATION. The "bringing together of parts into a whole"; 
used in connection with the various areas of the curriculum; as, the 
integration of these areas through audio- visual aids. 

KIT. A collection of audio-visual teaching materials in a box or 
container. The materials included in this teaching kit are usually 
put together for a specific purpose, and to illustrate or to amplify a 
specific topic. 

KODACHROME SLIDE. The trade name for the miniature 
lantern slide made on Eastman Kodak Company color film. (See 
Miniature Slide. ) 

LANTERN SLIDE. A picture made on glass, film or specially 
prepared material, and placed between glass or in a cardboard 
mount, and shown by means of a lantern slide projector. In the 
United States all standard lantern slides are made in size 3/4 by 4 
inches. The slides must be so made that they can be placed in the 
carrier of the projector with the longer edges at the top and bot- 
tom. (See also Kodachrome Slide, Miniature Slide, Photographic 
Lantern Slide. ) 

MAP. A pictorial representation showing the extent and relative 
position of the geographical features of the world and conveying 
topographical or other information. 



MAT. A thick paper or cardboard in or on which a picture is dis- 
played. The term also refers to the surface of a picture or painting 
purposely made with a dull finish. 

MINIATURE SLIDE. The 2x2 inch slide made by photo- 
graphing directly on black and white or color 35 mm. film. The 
slide so made is mounted in a cardboard mount or between glass, 
and is shown by means of a projector made to accommodate this 
size slide. ( See also Two by Two Lantern Slides. ) 

MODEL. A representation or replica of an actual object. 

MOTION PICTURE FILM. The film on which is photo- 
graphed a series of pictures or images later projected in the form 
known as motion pictures. There are three widths of film in use 
today, the 35 mm., the 16 mm., and the 8 mm. (See also Sound 
Film and Silent Film. ) 

MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR. A machine especially 
designed for the projection of motion picture film. A machine of 
this type is made either for the projection of silent motion pictures 
or for sound motion pictures. Only silent film may be projected on 
a silent motion picture projector; a sound motion picture projector 
will project sound films and also silent film when the sound track 
switch is cut off. 

MOUNT. The support, frame or background material upon which 
or by whish anything is prepared and presented for use, exhibition 
or examination. 

MULTI-SENSORY. That which appeals to two or more of 
the senses; sight, hearing, touch, feeling and smell. 

NOMOGRAM. A study chart, diagram or outline, to which name 
or identification labels may be affixed. A type of training device. 

OBJECT. In audio-visual instruction this term is used to mean 



the real or actual thing as opposed to a representation, artificial 
reproduction or model. 

OPAQUE PROJECTOR. A projection machine especially de- 
signed to enable one to project flat pictorial material in a manner 
similar to the projection of lantern slides. (See also Balopticon, 
Delineascope. ) 

OPAQUE SCREEN. The flat white-surface screen on which 
may be projected black and white or color silent motion pictures 
or lantern slides. The surface coating may be aluminum or the flat 
white, so-called "matte" coating which produces an even distribu- 
tion of light. 

ORIENTATION. The process through which a person goes to 
find his correct position in the group, community, or world. 

PERSPECTIVE. The science which studies and explains how 
to paint or draw a scene so that objects in it have their right shapes 
and appearances. In the language of the artist, it is the making of 
objects seem far away or near to. 

which the pictorial image is printed directly on the photographic 
lantern slide plate from a negative, processed, and then colored if 
desired. The slide so made is then covered with a cover glass, and 
projected as a standard lantern slide. ( See also Lantern Slide, Mini- 
ature Slide. ) 

PICTUROL. The trade name for the continuous roll of 35 mm. 
film manufactured by the Society for Visual Education. ( See also 
Filmslide, Filmstrip, Stillfilm.) 

PLAY-BACK. A phonograph or turn-table device on which 
records may be played. 

PRINT. A positive picture or reproduction made from a negative. 
Applied in audio-visual instruction to pictures, photographs, and 



PROJECTOR. A mechanical device for the reproduction or 
showing of a pictorial representation. (See also Motion Picture 
Projector, Filmstrip Projector, Opaque Projector, Stereopticon. ) 

REAL I A. A general term appHed to authentic material of any 
type. Applied in audio-visual instruction to that material which is 
real and authentic. 

RECORD. A cylinder or disc plate prepared in such a way as to 
reproduce sounds when brought into contact with the needle of 
a phonograph or other recording apparatus. 

RECORDING. The term applied to the mechanical account, evi- 
dence, record or report of a program of any kind. 

REEL. A rotary spool or frame. The term for the unit of measure- 
ment applied to motion picture film. The standard reel of 16 mm. 
film for classroom use carries four hundred feet of film. 

REPRESENTATIONAL. The term used in art to describe a 
picture in which the artist has depicted people and objects as close 
to reality as possible; photographic presentation rather than im- 

SCREEN. The surface on which a slide, motion picture or other 
pictorial image is projected and viewed. Screens for school use are 
of two general types— the opaque and the translucent. (See also 
Beaded Screen, Opaque Screen, Sound Screen, Translucent 
Screen. ) 

SILENT FILM. Motion picture film on which a series of pic- 
tures or images is photographed to be shown at a rate of sixteen 
frames per second. This film can only be shown on a projector 
geared to show silent film. (See also Motion Picture Film and 
Sound Film.) 

SIXTEEN MILLIMETER FILM. The non-inflammable, 
acetate-base film which has become standard for classroom use. 
This film has forty frames to the foot and four hundred feet to the 
standard reel. 16 mm. silent film is projected at a rate of sixteen 



frames per second; 16 mm. somid film is projected at a rate of 
twenty-four frames per second. ( See also Eight Millimeter Film, 
Thirty-five Millimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, Silent Film, 
Sound Film.) 

SLIDE CARRIER. That part of a lantern slide projector into 
which a slide is inserted for projection. 

SLIDE VIEWER. An instrument or holder for the viewing of 
individual lantern slides. Usually a table-top instrument which 
gives sufiicient magnification to permit close examination of the 

SLIDEFILM. A designation frequently used for filmstrip. (See 
also FilmsHde, Filmstrip, Picturol, Stillfihn.) 

SOUND FILM. Motion picture film with a band or "sound 
track" along one edge, produced either by sound waves recorded 
as the film is produced or added later as a recorded comment or 
musical accompaniment. This film is shown at a rate of twenty- 
four frames per second on a projector especially geared to record 
the sound track. (See also Eight Millimeter Film, Sixteen Milli- 
meter Film, Thirty-five MiUimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, 
Silent Fihn. ) 

SOUND SCREEN. A flat white opaque screen the surface of 
which is so perforated as to provide a surface acoustically adapted 
for use with sound motion pictures. (See also Beaded Screen, 
Screen, Opaque Screen, Translucent Screen*. ) 

SOUND SLIDEFILM. A combination of filmstrip and disc 
records. Voice, music, or other sound effects are reproduced on 
disc records to accompany the filmstrip. Special projector units are 
available which contain both the projector for the filmstrip, a turn- 
table for the record, and a built-in speaker. 

SOUND TRACK. The narrow band which forms one edge of 
sound motion picture film. The varying amounts of light on this 



band, when reaching the photoelectric cell of the projector, cause 
variations in current which in turn produce sound. 

SPECIMEN. A single item or sample representative of a class 
or group of materials or things. 

STANDARD LANTERN SLIDE. The 3)i by 4 inch slide de- 
fined under "Lantern Slide." Known under this name, as these are 
the standard dimensions for lantern slides in the United States. 

STE RE OPTIC ON. A projection machine made especially for 
the projection of lantern slides. The name for a lantern slide pro- 

STEREOGRAPH. An oblong picture containing two slightly 
dissimilar photographs of the same object, taken by a double 
camera with lenses set at a distance equal to the normal distance 
between the pupils of the eyes. The picture must be viewed through 
a stereoscope to obtain the correct pictorial eflFect. 

STEREOSCOPE. A special optical apparatus or instrument 
used to view a stereograph. 

STILLFILM. The trade name for the continuous roll of 35 mm. 
film manufactured by Stillfilm, Inc. ( See also Filmslide, Filmstrip, 
Picturol, Slidefilm. ) 

TEXTURE. The appeal to the sense of touch; used in connection 
with pictures as a part of the language of the artist. 

film used in motion picture theaters. It usually has a nitrate base 
and, as flammable material, must be projected in a fireproof booth, 
by a licensed operator. This film has sixteen frames to the foot and 
1000 feet of film to a standard reel. 35 mm. sound film is projected 
at a rate of ninety feet per minute and the silent film at a rate of 
sixty feet per minute. (See also Eight Millimeter Film, Sixteen 
Millimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, Silent Film, Sound Film. ) 



TRANSLUCENT SCREEN. The screen of tracing cloth, 
etched glass or bleached muslin on which may be projected black 
and white or color silent motion pictures or lantern slides. It is 
particularly useful for "daylight projection" use in a partially dark- 
ened room. When in use tliis screen is placed between the pro- 
jector and the group viewing the picture. 

TRANSCRIPTION. An artificial record or recording of a "live" 

made by photographing directly on black and white or color 35 mm. 
film. This slide so made is mounted in a cardboard mount or 
placed between glass, and is shown by means of a projector made 
to accommodate this size slide. ( See also Miniature Slide. ) 

VECTOGRAPH. A special type of stereoscopic photograph, 
printed in two colors or in black and white. The two pictures must 
be printed on opposite sides of a polarizing film and viewed through 
polaroid glasses to obtain the three-dimensional effect they are 
designed to give. 

VIEW-MASTER. A stereoscopic device whereby sets of stereo- 
scopic miniature color photographs arranged on reels may be 
viewed as three-dimensional pictures. 

VIEW-MASTER PROJECTOR. A two-dimensional projector 
especially designed for the use of interchangeable, seven-scene 
View-master picture reels.